foil.txt

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mapplewhite
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165690
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foil.txt
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2012-09-16 00:33:33
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foils
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  1. Spinal Cord Syndromes
    • Central:  weakness: distal > proximal, upper > lower extrems
    •                               most common, stenosis
    • Anterior: paralysis, loss of pain/temperature
    •                              posterior columns spared (psn,vibration)
    • Brown-Sequard:   unilateral:  ipsi paralysis & psn/vib loss
    •                             contralat: pain/temp; hemisection
  2. Viral Rashes 1
    1.  Chicken Pox:  crops of vesicles, acyclovir, IVIG if immunocompromised or pregnant

    • 2. Rubella: head-->feet, "3 day measles"
    • lymphadenopathy: poserior auricular, cervical, occipital
    • 1st trimester pregnancy: congenital defects
    • arthritis,encephalitis

    • 3.  Rubeola (Measles): cough, conjunctivitis, coryza (3 c's)
    • koplik spots
    • morbilliform rash: head--> feet     
    • lasts longer,sicker than rubella
  3. Jones Criteria
    • Major:  Carditis, Arthritis, Syndenham's Chorea,  Erythema marginatum, Subcutaneous nodules
    • Minor:  Prev hx RF or RHD, Arthralgia, elevated ESR, Increased PR interval, Fever
    • 2 major or 1 major and 2 minor + hx strep infection =  RHD
  4. HOCM Murmur
    harsh mid-systolic @ LLSB

    • louder with:  valsalva, standing, decreased preload
    • softer with: squatting, hand grip, trendelenburg,
    •                   volume expansion, increased after load
    • when you inc diastolic filling you decrease sound of murmur
  5. Virchow's Triad
    stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial damage
  6. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Rickettsial infection
    • Rumpel-Leede test (tourniquet produces petechiae)
  7. Guillain-Barre
    • ascending paralysis
    • plasma exchange, ivig
  8. Strychnine
  9. Henoch-Scholein Purpura
    • most common acute vasculitis affecting children
    • preceding Strep or GI infection (Salmonella, Shigella)
    • palpable purpura (legs, buttocks)
    • NO thrombocytopenia
    • Complications: arthritis, glomerulonepritis, hematuria, GI bleeding, intussusception
    • Renal consult
    • usually resolves spontaneously
  10. Ranson's Criteria
    • age >55
    • wbc > 16,000
    • glu >200
    • LDH > 350
    • AST > 250
  11. Diphtheria
  12. Pertussis
  13. Babesiosis
    • tick-borne hemolytic dz:  protozoan parasite
    • Northeastern US
    • fever chills fatigue malaise hepatosplenomeg, jaundice
    • peripheral smear--> parasites in RBCs
    • tx: quinine plus clinda; atovaquone plus azithromycin
  14. CO Poisoning
  15. HS Poisoning
  16. Erythema Nodusum
    • Painful non-ulcerative violaceous nodules: anterior tibia, arms
    •           and trunk.
    • Often marker for systemic dz: drug reaction, systemic infection (TB/fungal), Sarcoid, inflamm bowel dz (UC), cancer (leukemia, lymphoma)

    Women 30-50, treat underlying cause, lasts 3-6 weeks
  17. Crohn's Disease (Regional enteritis)
    • entire GI tract
    • segmental, "skip lesions"
    • perianal fissures, fistulas and abscesses, rectal prolapse
  18. Ulcerative Colitis
    • limited to colon
    • limited to mucosa and submucosa
    • major finding: bloody diarrhea
    • toxic megacolon
  19. Behcet's Disease
  20. JRA
  21. Carcinoid Syndrome
    • Circumscribed tumors in small bowel, appendix, stomach and colon.
    • Tumor secretes serotonin, prostaglandins and other stuff
    • Skin flushing, watery stools, hypotension, vasodilation, edema, ascites and bronchoconstriction.
    • Attacks last minutes to days.
  22. Hypokalemia Periodic Paralysis
  23. SLE
  24. Sarcoidosis
  25. Dressler's Syndrome
  26. Kawasaki Disease
    • mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome
    • predilection for coronary arteries
    • self-limited vasculitis
    • etiology unknown
    • Major criteria: fever>5days PLUS 4 of the following:
    • conjunctival injection (b/l), strawberry tongue/fissures/lips cracked, desquamation or swelling of fingers and toes, enlarged (= or>15mm) lymph nodes
    • inc WBC, inc ESR, inc platelets
    • tx: asa, IVIG
  27. Rubeola
    • measles
    • rash: head to feet
    • cough, conjunctivitis, coryza (3 c's)
  28. Roseola
    • Sixth Disease
    • slapped cheeks, sparing chin
  29. Temporal Arteritis
  30. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion
  31. Pheochromocytoma
    • Tumor of adrenal medulla cells (secretes norepi)
    • Dx: catecholamines and metabolites (VMA) in 24 hour urine
    • 5 P's (Paroxysmal spells) in 20-45 y/o person: pressure (increased HTN), pain (head, chest or abdomen), perspiration,
    • palpitations, pallor
  32. Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome
    • hereditary hemorrhagic telengietasias of skin, mucous membranes
    • recurrent epistaxis
    • recurrent GI bleeding
  33. CREST Syndrome
  34. ITP/TTP
  35. von Willebrand's Disease
  36. HELLP Syndrome
  37. Horner's Syndrome
  38. Rhabdomyolysis
  39. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
  40. Trichinosis
  41. Dengue (hemorrhagic) Fever
    • Viral infection in tropics/subtropics
    • Aedes mosquito
  42. Ehrlichiosis
    • tick bites-->similar presentation to RMSF
    • fever headache myalgias, maculopap rash
    • leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia
    • Tx: doxy, tcn, chloramphenicol
  43. Botulism
    • earliest complication involves eyes (diplopia)
    • descending paralysis and respiratory failure
    • can be biologic war agent (aerosolized)
  44. Rabies
    dogs main vector worldwide, bats in US

    also raccoon, fox, skunk

    NOT squirrel, rodents, rabbit
  45. Tetanus
  46. Subacute Cerebellar Degeneration
  47. Wernicke's/Korsakoff's
  48. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
  49. Acoustic Neuroma
    • Schwannoma
    • Benign tumor of myelin forming (Schwan) cells of the 8th cranial nerve (often other cranial nerve deficits)
  50. Marfan's Syndrome
  51. Osteogenesis Imperfecta
  52. Paget's Disease
  53. Multiple Sclerosis
    • Onset age 20-40, female predominance
    • Vertigo, ataxia, optic neuritis
    • Demyelinization d/t autoimmune-induced inflammation
  54. Eaton-Lambert
  55. Opisthotonus
  56. Trimethaphan
  57. Phentolamine
  58. MAO-I (Phenelzine)
  59. Serotonin Syndrome
  60. Tensilon
  61. Pyridostigmine
  62. Myasthenia Gravis
  63. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  64. Hemophilia A, B
  65. G6PD Deficiency
  66. Coombs Test and Anemia
  67. Waterhouse-Friederichsen Syndrome
    • Shock, petechiae, adrenal infarction
    • d/t Meningococcemia

    • PCN,chloramphenicol, isolation
    • contacts: NH, Dormitory, Family-->rifampin, Cipro, Rocephin
  68. TORCHES
    • collection of congenital infections that can cause severe fetal abnormalities
    • Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (most common),
    • Herpes Simplex/HIV/Hepatitis, Epstein-Barr, Syphillis
  69. Ramsey Hunt
    • CN VII  with Zoster
    • facial nerve palsy, ear pain
  70. Hutchinson's Sign
    • tip of nose lesion
    • Herpes Zoster
    • ophthalmic branch of CN V
    • vision threatening
  71. Janeway Lesions
    small nontender erythematous lesions on palms and soles

    infective endocarditis
  72. Kleinhauer-Betke Test
    fetal maternal hemorrhage
  73. Tertralogy of Fallot
    • most common cause of congenital shunts
    • 1.pulmonary artery stenosis
    • 2.r.ventricular hypertrophy
    • 3.ventricular septal defect
    • 4.aorta overriding ventricular septum
  74. Marcus Gunn Pupil
    afferent pupillary defect. consensual response preserved.

    optic neuritis

    seen in MS
  75. SIADH
    • Normally ADH secreted in states of dehydration.
    • SIADH: inapprop ADH secretion-->inhibits urine production--> fluid retention and dilutional hyponatremia
    • Inappropriately concentrated urine w/low Na and normovolemia=SIADH
    • Causes: CNS (tumor,infection,CVA),lung,drugs (chlorpropamide, diurectics, vincristine).

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