located below the thalamus. Seven major regulatory functions:
-regulates and integrates teh autonomic nervous system, including controlling heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and digestive tract activity.
-regulates emotional responses, including fear and pleasure
-regulates body temperature
-regulates food intake by controlling hunger sensations
-regulates water intake by controlling thirst sensations
-regulates sleep-wakefulness cycles
-regulates the pituitary gland and endocrine system activity