mo100

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tamispencer
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165758
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mo100
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2012-08-12 14:33:47
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Chapter 10
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Medical Terminology Chp 10
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  1. Includes the brain and spinal cord
    Central Nervous System
  2. Includes the 12 pairs of cranial nerves extending from the brain and the 31 pairs of peripheral spinal nerves extending outward from the spinal cord
    Peripheral nervous system
  3. One or more bundles of neurons that connect the brain and the spinal cord with other parts of the body
    Nerve
  4. A bundle or group of nerve fibers located within the brain or spinal cord
    Tract
  5. Carry nerve impulses toward the brain
    Ascending nerve tracts
  6. Carry nerve impulses away from the brain
    Descending nerve tracts
  7. A nerve center made up of a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous syste.
    Ganglion
  8. the supply of nerves to a specific body part
    Innervation
  9. a network of intersecting spinal nerves
    plexus
  10. basic cells of the nervous system that allow different parts of the  body to communicate with each other
    neurons
  11. the root-like processes that receive impulses and conduct them to the cell body
    dendrites
  12. a process that extends away from the cell body and conducts impulses away from the nerve cell
    axon
  13. branching fibers at the end of the axon that lead the nervous impulse from the axon to the synapse
    terminal end fibers
  14. the space between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor organ
    synapse
  15. chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron to the target receptor
    neurotransmitters
  16. a neurotransmitter that is released at some synapses in the spinal cord and at neuromuscular joints; it influences muscle action
    Acetylcholine
  17. Neurotransmitter released within the brain; involved in mood and thought disorders and in abnormal movements such as Parkinson's disease
    Dopamine
  18. naturally occurring substances that are produced by the brain to help relieve pain.
    Endorphins
  19. neurotransmitter released at synaptic nerve endings, responds to hypotension and stress
    Norepinephrine
  20. neurotransmitter released in the brain, has roles in sleep, hunger and pleasure recognition.
    Serotonin
  21. Provide support and protection for neurons, and their four main functions are:
    to surround neurons and hold them in place
    to supply nutrients and oxyge to neurons
    to insulate one neuron from another
    to destroy and remove dead nuerons
    Glial cells
  22. protective covering made up of glial cells. 
    myelin sheath
  23. the system of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system
    meninges
  24. the thick tough outermost membrane of the meninges
    dura mater
  25. inner surface of the vertebral column
    epidural space
  26. area located between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane
    subdural space
  27. second layer of the meninges and is located between the dura mater and the pia mater
    arachnoid membrane
  28. located below the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater, contains cerebrospinal fluid
    subarachnoid space
  29. third layer of the meninges, located nearest the brain and spinal cord
    pia mater
  30. produced by special capillaries within the four ventricles located in the middle region of the cerebrum

    spinal fluid
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  31. largest and uppermost portion of the brain. Responsible for all thought, judgment, memory and emotion, as well as for controlling and integrating motor and sensory functions.
    cerebrum
  32. the grey matter that makes up the outer layer of the cerebrum, arranged in fissures
    cerebral cortex
  33. the lobe of the brain that controls motor functions, memory and behavior.
    Frontal lobe
  34. the lobe that receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the tongue, skin and muscles
    parietal lobe
  35. lobe that controls eyesight
    occipital lobe
  36. lobe that controls the senses of hearing and smell, and the ability to create, store and access new information
    temporal lobe
  37. located below the cerebrum, produces sensations by relaying impulses to and from the cerebrum and the sense organs of the body
    thalamus
  38. located below the thalamus. Seven major regulatory functions:
    -regulates and integrates teh autonomic nervous system, including controlling heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and digestive tract activity.
    -regulates emotional responses, including fear and pleasure
    -regulates body temperature
    -regulates food intake by controlling hunger sensations
    -regulates water intake by controlling thirst sensations
    -regulates sleep-wakefulness cycles
    -regulates the pituitary gland and endocrine system activity
    hypothalamus
  39. second largest part of the brain; receives incoming messages regarding movement within joints, muscle tone, and positions of the body.
    -produce smooth, coordinated movements, to maintain equilibrium, and to sustain normal postures.
    cerebellum
  40. stalk like portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord
    brainstem
  41. provide conduction pathways to and from  the higher and lower centers in the brain.  Also control reflexes for movements of the eyes and head in response to visual and auditory stimuli
    Midbrain and Pons
  42. located at the lowest part of the brainstem and connected to the  spinal cord.  Controls basic survival functions
    Medulla
  43. carry instructions to the organs and glands and from the autonomic nervous system
    Autonomic nerve fibers
  44. receive external stimuli, and transmit this information to the brain where it is interpreted
    Sensory nerve fibers
  45. convey information that controls the body's voluntary muscular movements
    Somatic nerve fibers
  46. controls the involuntary actions of the body such as the functioning of internal organs.  Has two divisions that balance each other out to maintain homeostasis of the body.
    Autonomic nervous system
  47. prepares the body for emergencies and stress by increasing the breathing rate, heart rate and blood flow to muscles.
    sympathetic nervous system
  48. returns the body to normal after a response to stress; also maintains normal body functions during ordinary circumstances that are not emotionally or physically stressful.
    parasympathetic nervous system
  49. a medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia, but is not a physician.
    anesthetist
  50. a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems and mental illness
    psychiatrist
  51. holds an advanced degree,but is not a medical doctor.  Evaluates and treats emotional problems and mental illness
    psychologist
  52. Headache, or pain in the head
    cephalalgia
  53. a congenital herniation of brain tissue through a gap in the skull
    encephalocele
  54. the congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column
    meningocele
  55. a condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain
    hydrocephalus
  56. a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgement, that is often accompanied by personality changes
    dementia
  57. collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain
    cranial hematoma
  58. describes an injury within the skull near the point of impact
    coup
  59. an injury that occurs beneath the skull opposite to the area of impact

    counter blow
    contrecoup
  60. an acute condition of confusion, disorientation, disordered thinking and memory, agitation and hallucinations
    delirium
  61. stroke; damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted due to a blocked or ruptured blood vessel
    cerebrovascular accident
  62. the most common type of stroke in older people; occurs when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked.  Can be caused by narrowing of the carotid artery or by a cerebral thrombosis
    ischemic stroke
  63. the temporary interruption in the blood suppy to the brain. Symptoms include numbness, blurred vision, dizziness or loss of balance
    transient ischemic attack
  64. the loss of the ability to speak, write, and/or comprehend the written or spoken word
    aphasia
  65. occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks.  AKA a bleed
    hemorrhagic stroke
  66. tumor of the spinal cord
    myelosis
  67. pinched nerve
    an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb
    radiculitis
  68. nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region
    cervical radiculopathy
  69. nerve pain in the lower back
    lumbar radiculopathy
  70. progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath.
    Multiple sclerosis
  71. Lou Gehrig's disease

    a rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles.  Patients affected with this condition become progressively weaker until they are completely paralyzed and die
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  72. temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes paralysis only of the affected side of the face. Symptoms can include  the inability to close the eye, pain, tearing, drooling, hypersensitivity to sound in the affected ear, and impairment of taste.
    Bell's palsy
  73. infectious polyneuritis

    an inflammation of the myelin sheath of  peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that can lead to temporary paralysis. Autoimmune reaction that can occur after certain viral infections or an immunization
    Guillain-Barre syndrome
  74. characterized by severe lightning-like pain due to an inflammation of the fifth cranial nerve
    trigeminal neuralgia
  75. a condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, and other neurological deficiencies due to damage that affects are cerebrum.
    -premature or low birthweight infants
    cerebral palsy
  76. persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
    causalgia
  77. pain that occurs after an injury to an arm or leg, a heart attack, stroke or other medical problem.  A form of causalgia with burning pain that is much worse than would be expected due to the injury
    Complex regional pain syndrome
  78. a condition of abnormal and excessive sensitivity to touch, pain or other sensory stimuli
    hyperesthesia
  79. refers to a burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet.
    paresthesia
  80. a disorder of the nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord
    peripheral neuropathy
  81. the use of ultrasound imaging to diagnose a shift in the midline structures of the brain
    Echoencephalography
  82. a barbiturate used as a sedative and hypnotic
    amobarbital
  83. depresses the central nervous system and usually produces sleep
    hypnotic
  84. a class of drugs whose major action is a calming or depressed effect of the central nervous system
    barbiturates
  85. a barbiturate used as a sedative and as an anticonvulsant
    phenobarbital
  86. depresses the central nervous system to produce calm and diminished responsiveness without producing sleep
    sedative
  87. a condition in which an individual acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when he or she is not really sick. 
    -Desire to receive attention and sympathy
    factitious disorder
  88. a low grade chronic depression with symptoms that are milder than those of severe depression but are present on a majority of days for 2 or more years.
    dysthymia
  89. a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulation
    hallucination
  90. characterized by physical complaints or concerns about one's body that are out of proportion to any physical findings or disease
    somatoform disorder
  91. characterized by serious temporary or ongoing changes in function, such as paralysis or blindness, that are triggered by psychological factors rather than by any physical cause
    conversion disorder
  92. the intentional creation of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms motivated by incentives such as avoiding work
    malingering
  93. administered to treat symptoms of severe disorders of thinking and mood that are associated with neurological and psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, mania, and delusional disorders
    antipsychotic drug
  94. acts primarily on the central nervous system, where it produces temporary changes affecting the mind, emotions and behavior.  Used as medications to control pain, and to treat narcolepsy and attention disorders.
    psychotropic drug

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