exam 1

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exam 1
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2010-04-28 00:52:00
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  1. manager
    some one who coordinates and oversees the work of other people in order to accomplish organizational goals
  2. first line manager
    the lowest level of managment who manage the work of nonmanagerial employees and typically are dirctly or indirectly involved with producing the organizations products or servicing the organizations costumers
  3. middle managers
    managers between the lowest and top level of the organization who manage the work of first ine managers
  4. top managers
    managers at or near the upper level of the organization stucture who are responsible for making organizationwide decisions and establishing the goals and plans that affect the entiere organization
  5. managment
    coordination and orversight of the work activities of other so that their activities ar completed effeciently and effectively
  6. efficiency
    doing thing right, or getting the most output from the least amount of input
  7. effectiveness
    doing the right thing, or completing acctivities so that organizational goals are obtained
  8. planning
    a managment function that involvel defining goals, estalishing strategies for achevieng those goals, and developing plans to intergrate and coordinate activities
  9. organizing
    a managment function that involves arrainging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals
  10. leading
    a managment function that involves working with and through people to accomplish organizational goals
  11. controlling
    a managment function that involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance
  12. managment roles
    specific categories of managerial behavior
  13. interpersonal roles
    managerial roles that involve people and their duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature
  14. informational roles
    managerial roles that involve collecting, recieving , and disseminating information
  15. decisional roles
    managerial roles that revolve around making choices
  16. technical skill
    job specific knowledge and techniques neede to profeciently perform work task
  17. human skill
    the ability to work well with other people individually and in a group
  18. conceptual skill
    the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situation
  19. organization
    a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose
  20. universality of managment
    the reality that managment is needed in all types and sizes of organizations, at all levels, in all areas, no matter where it is located
  21. division of labor/ job specialization
    the breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive task
  22. industrial revolution
    a period during the late 18th century when machine power was substitued for human power, making it more economicall to manufacture goods in factories than at home
  23. classical approach
    the 1st studies of managment, which emphasized rationality and making organizations and workers as efficient as possible
  24. scientific management
    an approach that involves using the scientific method to determine the 1 best way to perfom the job
  25. therblings
    a classification scheme for labeling 17 basic hand motions
  26. general administrative theory
    an approach to management that focuses on descrbing what managers do and what constitutes good managment practice
  27. principles of management
    fundamentals rules of mangement that could be applied in all organizational situations and be taught in school
  28. bureaucracy
    a form of organization charcterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships
  29. quantitive approach
    the use of quantitive techniques to improve decion making
  30. total quality management TQM
    a philosophy of management that is driven by continuous improvement and responsivnes to costumers need and expectations
  31. organizational behavior OB
    a field of studies that reserches the actions of people at work
  32. Hawthorne studies
    a series of studies during the 1920 and 1930 that provided new insights into individual and group behavior
  33. system
    a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a maner that produces a unified whole
  34. closed system
    systems that are not influenced by and dont interact with their enviornment
  35. open systems
    systems that interact with their enviornment
  36. contingency approach/ situational approach
    a management approach which says that organizations are different, face different cituations and are requiered differnt managing
  37. behavior
    the actions of people
  38. organizational behavior OB
    the study of the actions of people at work
  39. emplyee productivity
    a performance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness
  40. absenteeism
    the failure to show up to work
  41. turnover
    voluntary or involuntary permanent withdraw from the organization
  42. organizational citizenship behavior OCB
    discretionary behavior that isnot part of an emplyees formal job requierments but promots the effective function of the organization
  43. workplace misbehavior
    intentional employee behavior that is pontantially damaging to the organization or to the individuals in it
  44. attitudes
    evaluative statements, either favorable or unfavorble, concerning objects people or events
  45. cognitive components
    the part of an attitude that is made up of the beliefs, opinions, knowledge or information held by a peorson
  46. affective component
    the part of an attitude that is the emotional or feeling part
  47. behavioral component
    the part of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something
  48. job invovment
    the degree to which an emplyee identifies with the job, actively participate in it, and considers the performans to be important to self-worth
  49. organizational commitment
    the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain memebership
  50. percieved organizational support
    employees general belief that their organizations values their contribution and cares about their well being
  51. employee engagement
    employees being connected to, satisfied with, and enthusiastic about their job
  52. cognitive dissonance
    any incompatibility or inconsistance between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
  53. attitude survey
    survey that elicit responses from employees through questions about how they feel about their job, work groups, supervisors, or the organization
  54. personality
    the unique combination of emotional, thought, and behavioral patterns that affect how aperson reacts to situations and interacts with others
  55. big 5 model
    a personality trait model that examines extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience
  56. locus of control
    the degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate
  57. Machiavellianism (mach)
    a meassure of the degree to which people are preagmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends justify means
  58. self-esteem
    a individuals degree of like or dislike for him self
  59. self monitoring
    a personality triait that meassures the ability to adjust behavior to external situational factors
  60. type A personality
    someone who is contiunally and agressively sturgguling to achive more and more in less and less time
  61. proactive personality
    people who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs
  62. emotions
    intense feelings that are directed at someone or something
  63. emotional intelligence IE
    the ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information
  64. perception
    a process by which w egive meaning to our enviornment by organazing and interpreting sensory impressions
  65. attribution theory
    a theory used to explain how we judge people differently, depending on what meaning we attribute to a give behavior
  66. fundamental attribution error
    the tnedincy to underestimate the influence external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgement about the behaviors of others
  67. self-serving bias
    the tendincy for individuals to attribute their successes to internal factors while putting the blame for faliures on external factors
  68. assumed similarity
    the assumption that others are like oneself
  69. stereotyping
    judging a person on the basis of one's perception of a group to which he or she belongs
  70. halo effect
    a general impression of an individual that is influenced by a single characteristic
  71. learning
    a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
  72. operant conditioning
    a theory of learning that says behavior is a function of its consequences
  73. social learning theory
    a theory of learning that says people can learn through observing and direct experience
  74. shaping behavior
    the process of guiding learning in graduate steps, using reinforcement or lack of reinforcement
  75. motivation
    the process by which a persons efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal
  76. hierchy of needs
    Maslows theory that there is a hierchy of five human needs: psycological, safety, social, esteem, self actualization
  77. phsycological needs
    a persons needs for food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other physical needs
  78. safety needs
    a persons need for security and protection from physical and emotional harm
  79. social needs
    a persons need for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
  80. esteem needs
    a persons needs for internal factors, such as self respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors, such as status, recognition, and attention
  81. self-actualization needs
    a persons need to become what he is capable of becoming
  82. Theory Y
    the assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsability, and can excercise self direction
  83. Theory X
    the assumption that emplyees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsability, and must be coerced to perform
  84. two-factor theory
    Herzbergs motivation theory, which proposes that intrisic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrintic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction
  85. hygiene factors
    factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction but dont motivate
  86. motivators
    factors that increase job satisfaction and motivation
  87. three needs theory
    McClellands motivation theory, which says that 3 acquired (not innate) needs -- achievement, power, affiliation-- are major motives of work
  88. need for achievement nAch
    the drive to succeed and excel in relation to a set of standards
  89. need for power nPow
    the need to make other behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
  90. need for affiliation nAff
    the desier for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
  91. goal-setting theory
    the proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals
  92. self efficacy
    an individuals belief that he or she is capable of performing a task
  93. reinforcment theory
    the theory that the behavior is a function of its consequences
  94. reinforcers
    consequences immediatly following a behavior will be repeated
  95. job design
    the way task are combine to form complete jobs
  96. job scope
    the number of differnet task required tin a job and the frequency with wich those task are repeated
  97. job enlargment
    the horizontal expansion of a job by increasing job scope
  98. job enrichment
    the vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating resposabilities
  99. job depth
    the degree of control emplyees have over their work
  100. job characteristic model JCM
    a framework for analyzing and desingign jobs that identify 5 primary core job dimension, their interrelationships, and their impact on outcomes
  101. skill variety
    the degree to which a job requiers a variety of activities so that an employee can use a umber of different skill and talents
  102. task identity
    the degree to which a job requieres completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
  103. task significance
    the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of the people
  104. autonomy
    the degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to an individual in schedualing work and determing the procedures to be used in carrying it out
  105. feedback
    the degree to which carrying out work activities required by a job results in an individuals obtaining direct and clear information about his or her perfomance effectiveness
  106. equity theory
    the theory that an employee compares his jobs input:output ratio with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity
  107. referents
    the persons, systems, or sleves against which individuals compare themselves to asses equity
  108. distributive justice
    perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
  109. procedual justice
    percieved fairness of the process used to detrmine the distribution of rewards
  110. expectancy theory
    the theory that an individual tends to act in a certain way, based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome by the individual
  111. compressed workweek
    a workweek in which employees work longer hours per day but fewer days per week
  112. flexible work hours
    a schedualing system in which employees are required to a certain number of hours peeer week but are free , whitin limits, to vary the hour of work
  113. job sharing
    the practice of having two or more people split a full time job
  114. telecomunication
    a aproach in which employees work at home and are linked to the workplace by comptuer and modem
  115. open book managment
    a motivational approach in which an organizations financial statement are shared with all employees
  116. employee recognition programs
    programs that consist of personal attention and expressing interest, approval, and appreciation for a job well done
  117. pay-for-perfomance programs
    variable compensation plans that pay emplyees on the basis of some performance measure
  118. stock option
    financial instruments that give employees the right to purchase shares of stock at a set price.

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