UpperLimbMm.

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Author:
rustemk
ID:
1659
Filename:
UpperLimbMm.
Updated:
2009-11-25 10:28:46
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Upper Limb Muscles
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I,A,O,N of Upper Limb Muscles
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  1. Deltoid
    • Origin: Lateral 1/3 of clavical, acromion, and spine of scapula
    • Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity
    • Innervation: Axillary from brachial plexus
    • Actions: All fibers - Adduct shoulder (glenohumeral joint); Ant. Fibers - Flex, medially rotate, horizontally adduct shoulder (glenohumeral joint); Post. Fibers - Extend, laterally rotate, horizontally abduct shoulder (glenohumeral joint)
  2. Trapezius
    • Origin: External occipital protuberance, medial portion of superior nuchal line of occiput, ligamentum nuchae, and spinous processes of C7-T12
    • Insertion: Lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula
    • Innervation: Spinal accesory, cervical plexus
    • Actions: Upper Fibers - Bilateral extension of head and neck, unilateral flexion of head and neck to same side, rotation of head and neck to opposite side, elevate & upwardly rotate scapula (scapulothoracic joint); Middle Fibers - Adduct & stabilize scapula (scapulothoracic joint); Lower Fibers - Depress & upwardly rotate scapula (scapulothoracic joint)
  3. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Origin: Spinous processes of last 6 thoracic vertebrae, last 3-4 ribs, thoracolumbar aponeurosis, and posterior iliac crest
    • Insertion: Crest of lesser tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: Brachial plexus
    • Actions: Extend, adduct, medially rotate shoulder (glenohumeral joint)
  4. Teres Major
    • Origin: Lateral side of inferior angle and lower half of lateral border of scapula
    • Insertion: Crest of lesser tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: Lower subscapular
    • Actions: Extend, adduct, medially rotate shoulder (glenohumeral joint)
  5. Supraspinatus
    • Origin: Supraspinatus fossa of scapula
    • Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: Suprascapular n.
    • Actions: Abduct shoulder (glenohumeral joint), stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity
  6. Infraspinatus
    • Origin: Infraspinous fossa of scapula
    • Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: Suprascapular from brachial plexus
    • Actions: Laterally rotate, adduct, extend, horizontally abduct shoulder (glenohumeral joint); stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity
  7. Teres Minor
    • Origin: Superior half of lateral border of scapula
    • Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: Axillary n.
    • Actions: Laterally rotate, adduct, extend, horizontally abduct shoulder (glenohumeral joint); stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity
  8. Subscapularis
    • Origin: Subscapular fossa of scapula
    • Insertion: Lesser tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: Subscapular n.
    • Actions: Medially rotates shoulder (glenohumeral joint), stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity
  9. Rhomboid Major
    • Origin: Spinous processes of T2-5
    • Insertion: Medial border of scapula between spine of scapula and inferior angle
    • Innervation: Dorsal scapular from brachial plexus
    • Actions: Adducts, elevates, downwardly rotates scapula (scapulothoracic joint)
  10. Rhomboid Minor
    • Origin: Spinous processes of C7-T1
    • Insertion: Medial border of scapula between spine of scapula and inferior angle
    • Innervation: Dorsal scapular from brachial plexus
    • Actions: Adduct, elevate, downwardly rotate scapula (scapulothoracic joint)
  11. Levator Scapula
    • Origin: Transverse processes of 1st-4th cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion: Medial border and superior angle of scapula
    • Innervation: Dorscal Scapular n., Cervical nn.
    • Actions: Elevates, downwardly rotates scapula; flexis head and neck laterally, rotates head and neck to same side
  12. Serratus Anterior
    • Origin: Surfaces of upper eight or nine ribs
    • Insertion: Anterior surface of medial border of scapula
    • Innervation: Long thoracic n. from brachial plexus
    • Actions: With origin fixed - Abducts, depresses scapula at scapulothoracic joint, holds medial border of scapula against the rib cage; With scapula stabilized - may act in forced inhalation
  13. Pectoralis Major - Upper Fibers
    • Origin: Medial half of clavicle
    • Insertion: Crest of greater tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: Anterior thoracic n. from brachial plexus
    • Actions: Adduct and medially rotate the shoulder at the glenohumeral joint, may assist in elevating the thorax in forced inhalation (arm fixed), flex and horizontally adduct the shoulder
  14. Pectoralis Major - Lower Fibers
    • Origin: Sternum, cartilage of ribs 1-6
    • Insertion: Crest of greater tubercle of humerus
    • Innervation: Anterior thoracic n. from brachial plexus
    • Actions: Adduct; medially rotate and extend the shoulder at the glenohumeral joint; may assist in elevating thorax in forced inhalation (arm fixed)
  15. Pectoralis Minor
    • Origin: 3rd-5th ribs
    • Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula
    • Innervation: Anterior thoracic n. from brachial plexus
    • Actions: Depresses, abducts, anteriorly tilts scapula at scapulothoracic joint; assists in forced inhalation (scapula fixed)
  16. Subclavius
    • Origin: 1st rib and cartilage
    • Insertion: Inferior, lateral aspect of clavicle
    • Innervation: 5th and 6th cervical nn.
    • Actions: Draws clavicle inferiorly and anteriorly, elevates 1st rib, stabilizes sternoclavicular joint
  17. Biceps Brachii
    • Origin: Short head - Coracoid process of scapula; Long head - Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
    • Insertion: Tuberosity of the radius and aponeurosis of the biceps brachii Innervation: Musculocutaneus n.
    • Actions: Flexes the elbow at the humeroulnar joint, supinates the forearm at the radioulnar joint, flexes the shoulder at the glenohumeral joint
  18. Triceps Brachii
    • Origin: Long head - Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, Lateral head - Posterior surface of proximal half of humerus, Medial head - Posterior surface of distal 1/2 of humerus
    • Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Extend the elbow at the humeroulnar joint; long head also extends and adducts the shoulder at the glenohumeral joint
  19. Coracobrachialis
    • Origin: Coracoid process of scapula
    • Insertion: Medial surface of mid-humeral shaft
    • Innervation: Musculocutaneus n.
    • Actions: Flexes and adducts the shoulder at the glenohumeral joint
  20. Brachialis
    • Origin: Distal 1/2 of anterior surface of humerus
    • Insertion: Tuberosity and coronoid process of ulna
    • Innervation: Musculocutaneus n.
    • Actions: Flexes the elbow at the humeroulnar joint
  21. Brachioradialis
    • Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • Insertion: Styloid process of radius
    • Innervation: Musculocutaneus and radial nn.
    • Actions: Flexes the elbow at the humeroulnar joint, assists in pronation and supenation of the forearm when movements are resisted
  22. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    • Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • Insertion: Base of 2nd metacarpal
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Extend and abduct the wrist at the radiocarpal joint, assist in flexion of the elbow at the humeroulnar joint
  23. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    • Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • Insertion: Base of 3rd metacarpal
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Extend and abduct the wrist at the radiocarpal joint, assist in flexion of the elbow at the humeroulnar joint
  24. Extensor Digitorum
    • Origin: Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: Middle and distal phalanges of 2nd-5th fingers
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Extend 2nd-5th fingers at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints, assists in extension of wrist at radiocarpal joint
  25. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Origin: Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: Base of 5th metacarpal
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Extend and adduct the wrist at the radiocarpal joint
  26. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • Origin: Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle
    • Insertion: Base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals
    • Innervation: Median n.
    • Actions: Flexes and abducts the wrist at the radiocarpal joint, flexes the elbow at the humeroulnar joint
  27. Palmaris Longus
    • Origin: Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle
    • Insertion: Flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis
    • Innervation: Median n.
    • Actions: Tenses palmar fascia, flexes the wrist at the radiocarpal joint, flexes the elbow at the humeroulnar joint
  28. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Origin: Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle
    • Insertion: Pisiform
    • Innervation: Ulnar n.
    • Actions: Flexes and adducts the wrist at the radiocarpal joint, may flex the elbow at the humeroulnar joint
  29. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    • Origin: Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle of humerus, ulnar collateral ligament, coronoid process of radius
    • Insertion: By 4 tendons into sides of middle phalanges of 2nd-5th fingers
    • Innervation: Ulnar n.
    • Actions: Flexes 2nd-5th fingers at metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints, flexes the wrist at the radiocarpal joint
  30. Flexor Digitorum Profundus
    • Origin: Anterior and medial surfaces of proximal 3/4 of ulna
    • Insertion: By 4 tendons into bases of distal phalanges, palmar surface
    • Innervation: Ulnar n.
    • Actions: Flexes the 2nd-5th fingers at the metacarpophalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints, may flex wrist at radiocarpal joint
  31. Pronator Teres
    • Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus, common flexor tendon, and coronoid process of ulna
    • Insertion: Middle of lateral surface of radius
    • Innervation: Median n.
    • Actions: Pronates the forearm at the radioulnar joint, assists in flexion of elbow at the humeroulnar joint
  32. Supinator
    • Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral ligament, and annular ligament
    • Insertion: Lateral surface of proximal shaft of radius
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Supinates the forearm at the radioulnar joint
  33. Opponens Pollicis
    • Origin: Flexor retinaculum and tubercle of trapezium
    • Insertion: Entire length of 1st metacarpal bone, radial side
    • Innervation: Median n.
    • Actions: Opposition of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint (bringing pads of thumb and last finger together)
  34. 1st Dorsal Interossei
    • Origin: Ulnar surface of 1st metacarpal, radial surface of 2nd metacarpal Insertion: Proximal phalange on radial side of index finger
    • Innervation: Ulnar n.
    • Actions: Abducts and assists in flexion of index finger at metacarpophalangeal joint, assists in extension of index finger at interphalangeal joints
  35. Adductor Pollicis
    • Origin: Capitate, 2nd and 3rd metacarpals
    • Insertion: Base of proximal phalange of thumb
    • Innervation: Ulnar n.
    • Actions: Adduct the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint, adduct and assist flexion of the thumb at the metacarpophalangeal joint
  36. Extensor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin: Posterior surface of radius and ulna
    • Insertion: Distal phalange of thumb
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Extend the thumb at the interphalangeal joint, assist in extending the thumb at the metacarpophalangeal and carpometacarpal joints
  37. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin: Anterior surface of radius, deep to flexors
    • Insertion: Distal phalange of thumb
    • Innervation: Median n.
    • Actions: Flexes the thumb at the interphalangeal joint, assists in flexing the thumb at the metacarpophalangeal and carpometacarpal joints
  38. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin: Posterior surface of radius and ulna, deep to extensors
    • Insertion: Base of first metacarpal
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Abducts and extends the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint
  39. Extensor Digiti Minimi
    • Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus at common extensor origin
    • Insertion: Extensor expansion of 5th finger
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Extends rth finger primarily at metacarpophalangeal joint, secondarily at interphalangeal joints
  40. Extensor Indicis
    • Origin: Posterior surface of distal 1/3 of ulna and interosseus membrane Insertion: Extensor expansion fo 2nd finger
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Extends 2nd finger, helps extend wrist at radiocarpal joint
  41. Pronator Quadratus
    • Origin: Distal quarter of anterior surface of ulna
    • Insertion: Distal quarter of anterior surface of radius
    • Innervation: Anterior interosseous n. from median n.
    • Actions: Pronates forearm, deep fibers bind radius and ulna together
  42. Anconeus
    • Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: Lateral surface of olecranon and superior part of posterior surface of ulna
    • Innervation: Radial n.
    • Actions: Assists triceps in extending forearm, stabilizes elbow joint, may abduct ulna during pronation
  43. Abductor Pollicis Brevis
    • Origin: Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
    • Insertion: Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: Recurrent branch of median n.
    • Actions: Abducts thumb, helps oppose it
  44. Flexor Pollicis Brevis
    • Origin: Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
    • Insertion: Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: Recurrent branch of median n. (superficial head) and deep branch of ulnar n. (deep head)
    • Actions: Flexes thumb
  45. Flexor Digiti Minimi
    • Origin: Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
    • Insertion: Medial border of 5th metacarpal
    • Innervation: Deep branch of ulnar n.
    • Actions: Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th finger
  46. Opponens Digiti Minimi
    • Origin: Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
    • Insertion: Medial border of 5th metacarpal
    • Innervation: Deep branch of ulnar n.
    • Actions: Draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing 5th finger into opposition with thumb
  47. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    • Origin: Pisiform
    • Insertion: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th finger
    • Innervation: Deep branch of ulnar n.
    • Actions: Abducts 5th finger, assists in flexion of its proximal phalanx
  48. Dorsal Interossei
    • Origin: Adjacent sides of 2 metacarpals as bipennate mm.
    • Insertion: Bases of proximal phalanges, extensor expansions of 2nd-4th fingers
    • Innervation: Deep branch of ulnar n.
    • Actions: abduct 2nd-4th fingers from axial line, act with lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints
  49. Palmar Interossei
    • Origin: Palmar surfaces of 2nd, 4th and 5th metacarpals as unipennate mm.
    • Insertion: Bases of proximal phalangs; extensor expansions of 2nd, 4th and 5th fingers
    • Innervation: Deep branch of Ulnar n.
    • Actions: Adduct 2nd, 4th and 5th fingers toward axial line; assist lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints
  50. Lumbricals
    • Origin: Tendons of flexor digitorum profundus; 1 and 2 as unipennate from lat. 2 tendons, 3 and 4 as bipennate from medial 3 tendons
    • Insertion: Lateral sides of extensor expansions of 2nd-5th fingers
    • Innervation: Median n.
    • Actions: Flex metacarpophalangeal joints; extend interphalangeal joints of 2nd-5th fingers

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