Xray - RUS 3
Card Set Information
Xray - RUS 3
RUS 3 Study cards
What is the most common image receptor?
sensitive to electromagnetic energies
4 components of modern x-ray film
Base, Emulsion, adhesive, and supercoat
What layer is flexible, durable and contains blue dye?
What layer is made of silver halide crystals in gelatin?
What layer holds emulsion to base?
What layer prevents bubbling of emulsion during processing?
What is the protective coating to prevent damage to emulsion?
What are the 4 factors of film?
Resolution, contrast, speed, latitude
ability to show detail
Higher resolution has smaller or larger crystals? Thinner or thicker layers?
smaller crystals and thinner layers
Amount of gray shades imaged by a type of film
Higher resolution will result in lower or higher contrast?
Sensitivity to light and ability to creat image
films ability to image various densities and contrasts
What yields wider latitude?
Larger crystals with thicker layers
Wider latitude is good for chest or knee xrays?
unseen change in film before processing
What ionizes to produce the latent image?
Silver halide crystals by light photons from screen
T or F Greater than 99% of latent image is formed by x-ray photons
T or F Less than 1% of latent image is formed by visible light from intensifying screens
What action begins the manifest image process?
Inserting the film into the processor
What are the 5 types of film?
Intensifying screen, direct exposure, detail extremity, single emulsion, duplication
What film uses large amts of silver in a thick layer?
What film is used for bone work?
What film is used for mammography and ultrasound?
What film requires small crystals, higher dosages, and no grid?
What T should films be stored at?
does film expire?
How long are films kept for?
7 years, longer for minors
How long are N.A.T. films kept for?
What is the standard procedure for manual processing?
What is the Time/T method
Developer is 5 min. @ 68 degrees
If T increases in manual processing, developing time?
Decreases (hotter- faster)
What are the 4 stages of processing?
Developer, fixer, wash, and dry
What chemical is used in the fixer stage
What chemical is used in the developer stage?
What is used in the wash stage
What is used in the dry stage?
Does automatic processing occur at a higher T than manual?
In automatic processing, what are the times for each stage?
Developer, 20-25s; Fixer, 20s; Wash, 20s; Dry, 25-30s
system of rollers
direct film from one chemical tank to next
Gears and chains of belts which drive mechanism
chemicals are constantly refreshed as they are used to maintain consistency
What stage is most sensitive to contamination?
Silver recovery is mostly recovered from?
What is the least expensive method of silver recovery?
Undeveloped green film contains much?
What overflow is toxic in silver recovery?
unwanted exposure of film by environment
What are the 3 causes of chem. fog?
Developer T is too high, Developer time is too long, [ ] of chemicals is too strong
If developer T is too cool what will happen to the film?
T or F Film is more sensitive to exposure after it has been exposed?
Safeness of environment is controlled by what 3 factors?
Wattage, type of filter, and distance
The wattage of the bulb should be?
What is the standard filter in x-ray?
Kodak GBX dark red
What is the distance from the work area?
science of measuring film/processing response and comparing to specifications of manufacturer.
What is the least accurate sensitometry method?
What is used to read optical density in designated sections of the film?
Good sensitometry should be done at what part of day?
Same time of day at regular intervals
What is used to determine normal limits in sensitometry?
D log/E curve (Hurter and Driffield Curves)
Unexposed silver halides are washed away in what stage?
Silver is mostly recovered in what stage?
What are th 4 methods of silver recovery?
Metallic replacement, electrolytic, chemical precipitation, and resin
Can scrap film be recycled?
What screen changes photon energy into visible light?
Is pt. exposure reduced with intensifying screens?
Screens are constructed of what 4 parts?
Base, reflective layer, phosphor, and protective coating
What screen layer directs isotropic light toward film?
What screen layer emits light when excited by x-ray photons?
ability of a material to emit light when excited
What are the 2 types of luminescence?
Phosphorescence and Fluorescence
What luminescence type has instantaneous emission
What luminescence type is bad?
matching light color with sensitivity of film
Calcium tungstate emits what color of light?
Rare Earth emits what color of light?
Rare Earth uses phosphors with Atomic #?
Does calcium tungstate or rare earth reduces pt. exposure?
Does intensifying screens have the same characteristics as film?
Yes, resolution, speed, and contrast
Poor contact results in loss of what?
Loss of image sharpness and increased density at the area of poor contact
Unwanted densities that obscure film details
Higher speed screens require less or more exposure to produce an image?
Are higher or lower speed screens used for larger body parts?
Higher speed screens
Relative speed and what are inversely related?
What is the relative speed formula?
mAs1/ mAs2= RS2/RS1