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2012-08-13 18:36:38

NASM Chapter 2
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  1. Kinetic chain:
    combination and interrelation of the nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems.
  2. Peripheral nervous system
    cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body and serve to relay information from bodily organs to the brain and from the brain to bodily organs.
  3. sensory afferent neurons
    Neurons that transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to the brain or spinal cord
  4. golgi tendon organs
    organs sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change
  5. motor function
    the neuromuscular response to sensory information
  6. kinetic chain
    the combination and interrelation of the nervous, skeletal and muscular systems.
  7. neuron
    the functional unit of the nervous system
  8. nervouse system
    large group of cells that form nerves, which provide a communication network within the body
  9. sensory function
    the ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either internal or external environments
  10. interneurons
    neurons that transmit impulses from one neuron to another
  11. central nervous system
    consits of the brainand spinal cord and serves mainly to interpret information
  12. integrative function
    the ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response.
  13. motor (efferent) neurons
    neurons that transmit nerve impulses from the brain or spinal cord to the effector sites
  14. mechanoreceptors
    sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in bodily tissues.
  15. joint receptors
    receptors sensitive to pressure, acceleration and decceleration in the joint
  16. muscle spindles
    fibers sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.
  17. Tendon:
    attach muscle to bone and provide the anchor from which the muscle can exert force and control the bone and joint.
  18. muscle:
    tissue consisting of long cells that contract when stimulated to produce motion.
  19. neurotransmitter:
    chemical messengers that transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
  20. muscular system:
    a series of muscles that the nervous system commands to move the skeletal system.
  21. sacromere:
    functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction
  22. neural activation:
    the contraction fo a muscle generated by the communication between the nervous system and muscular sytesm.
  23. skeletal system:
    bodys frame which is comprised of bones and joints
  24. bones
    hard connective tissue that connect to create a skeletal framework
  25. joints
    moveable places where two or more bones meet
  26. axial skeleton
    skull, rib cage, and vertebrae column
  27. appendicular skeleton
    upper and lower extremeties
  28. depression
    flattened or indented portion of bone, which can be a muscle attachment site.
  29. process:
    projection protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons and ligaments can attach
  30. arthrokinematics
    movements of the joings
  31. synovial joints
    joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and ar most associated with movement in the body.
  32. nonsynovial joints
    joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage.
  33. ligament
    connective tissue that connects bone to bone
  34. Type I muscle fiber:
    • smaller
    • produce less force
    • slow to fatigue
    • long term contractions
    • red fibers
    • slow twitch
  35. Type II muscle fiber
    • lower in capillaries, mitochondria an myoglobin
    • produce more force
    • quick to fatigue
    • short term contractions
    • white fibers
    • fast twitch