NASM CH4

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Author:
tjtolman
ID:
165950
Filename:
NASM CH4
Updated:
2012-08-13 22:18:41
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NASM
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NASM CH 4
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  1. biomechanics
    study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body.
  2. superior:
    above a point of reference
  3. inferior
    below a point of reference
  4. proximal
    nearest the center of the body or point of reference
  5. distal
    farthest away from center of body, or point of reference
  6. anterior (ventral)
    the front of the body
  7. posterior (dorsal)
    on the back of the body
  8. medial:
    positioned near the middle of the body
  9. lateral
    toward the outside of the body
  10. contralateral
    positioned on the opposite side of the body
  11. ipsilateral
    positioned on the same side of the body
  12. sagittal plane
    divides body into left and right halves
  13. frontal plane
    divides the body into front and back halves
  14. abduction
    away from the middle of the body
  15. adduction
    toward the middle of the body
  16. transverse plane
    divides body into top and bottom halves
  17. Muscle actions:
    • Eccentric
    • Isometric
    • Concentric
  18. Eccentric contraction
    • the lengthening of a muscle
    • -a negative, work is being done on the muscle
    • -moving in same direction as the resistance.
  19. Isometric contraction
    • a muscle maintaining a certain length (exerts force equal to that placed on it)
    • -no visible movement
  20. concentric
    • shortening of a muscle. (exerts more force than is being placed on it)
    • -moving in opposite direction of force
  21. Force:
    an influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or decceleration of the second object.
  22. length tension relationship
    the length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force
  23. force couple
    muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
  24. rotarty motion
    movement of the bones around the joints
  25. torque
    a force that produces rotation
  26. motor behavior
    process of the body responding to internal and external stimuli
  27. motor control
    study of posture and movements and the involved structures and mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to assimilate and integrate sensory information with previous experiences
  28. synergies
    groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement
  29. proprioception
    the cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements
  30. senssorimotor integration
    the cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering information, interpreting, and executing movement
  31. motor learning
    repeated practice of motor control processes which lead to a change in the ability to produce complex movements
  32. feedback
    the use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the kinetic chain in motor learning.
  33. internal feedback
    the process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the envrionment
  34. external feedback
    information provided by some external source, such as a health pro, videotape, mirror, heart rate monitorto supplement internal envrionment

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