PcatAnat

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cooxcooxbananas
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165986
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PcatAnat
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2012-09-25 12:03:29
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PCAT Anatomy
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  1. What are the six goals functions for the circulatory system?
    Distribute nutrients from the digestive tract, liver and adipose (fat) tissue.

    Transport oxygen from the lungs to the entire body and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

    Transport metabolic waste products from tissues to the execretory system

    Transport hormones from endocrine glands to targets and provide feedback

    Maintain homeostasis of body temperature

    Hemostasis (blood clotting)
  2. perfusion is..
    the flow of blood through a tissue
  3. Ischemia is..
    inadequate blood flow due to shortages of O2, nutrients and buildup of metabolic wastes
  4. Hypoxia is..
    a condition of a tissue in which there is adequate bloodflow but a reduced supply of oxygen
  5. the functions of the circulatory system include...
    Transport of the blood throughout the body and exchange of material between the blood and tissues
  6. The ______ is the organ that is a muscular pump that forces blood through a branching series of vessels to the lungs and the rest of the body.
    Heart
  7. Vessels that carry blood away from the heart at high pressure are called...
    arteries
  8. Vessels that carry blood back toward the heart at low pressure are called...
    veins
  9. Arteries branch into increasingly smaller arteries called...
    arterioles
  10. arteries branch into aterioles because?
    The farther the arteries are from the hear, the more the pressure of blood decreases, smaller arteries will keep the blood pressure consistent.
  11. arterioles branch into ...
    capillaries
  12. capillairies are wide enough to let ____pass through
    a single blood cell
  13. after passing through the capillaries, blood collects in small veins called...
    venules
  14. blood goes from the venules into the _____ back to the ____.
    • veins
    • heart
  15. the right side of the heart pumps blood to the...
    lungs
  16. the left side of the heart pumps blood to...
    everything but the lungs
  17. the flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart is called...
    pulmonary circulation
  18. the flow of blood from the heart, to the rest of the body, back to the heart is called...
    systemic circulation
  19. portal systems are systems in which blood passes through capillaries...
    more than once
  20. the heart has two kinds of chambers involved in pumping blood. The _____ and the ____.
    atria and the ventricles.
  21. The _____ is where blood can collect from the veins before getting pumped into the _____.
    • atria
    • ventricles
  22. The _______ pump blood out of the heart at high pressure into the arteries.
    ventricles
  23. The right atrium recieves ______ blood from the ______ circulation.
    • deoxygenated
    • systemic
  24. Detailed step by step of the flow of blood in the heart.
    you start at the superior and inferior vena cavas then into the right atrium, through the tricuspid valve into the right ventircle, up through the pulmonary semilunar valve, into the pulmonary artery, out to the lungs, back into the pulmonary veins, into the left atrium, down through the bicuspid (mitral) valve, into the left ventricle up into the aortic semilunar valves, and finally through the aorta.
  25. the very first branches from the aorta are ______ arteries.
    coronary arteries
  26. Coronary arteries branch t supply blood to the _____ of the heart.
    wall
  27. The coronary arteries and viens get the word "coronary" because...
    they encircle the heart forming a crown shape.
  28. A _________ valve is between each ventricle and atrium to prevent blood backflow.
    atrioventricular (AV)
  29. the coronary arteries and veins mere from the _____ sinus
    coronary
  30. the AV valve between the left atrium and ventricle is called...
    the bicuspid (mitral) valve
  31. the AV valve between the right atrium and ventricle is called...
    the tricuspid valve
  32. the two semilunar valves are...
    • the pulmonary semilunar valves
    • the aortic semilunar valves
  33. when veins fail, _____ result.
    varicose veins
  34. during diastole, the ventricles are ________ and blood flows into the atria.
    relaxed
  35. during diastole the atria...
    contract
  36. in systole, the ventircles are _______ and the atria are ______.
    • contacting
    • relaxed
  37. the heart rate (HR) or pulse is the number of times the _________ is repeated per minute.
    cardiac cycle
  38. The cardiac output is...
    the total amount of blood pumped per minute.
  39. the stroke volume (SV) is ..
    the amount of blood pumped with each systole
  40. the equation for the Cardiac Output (CO) is...
    Cardiac Output (CO) = Stroke Volume (SV) x Heart Rate (HR)
  41. The frank-starling mechanism states that..
    the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart (the end diastolic volume)
  42. the two principal ways to increase venous return are..
    1) increase the total volume of blood in the circulatory system

    2) Contraction of large veins can propel blood towards the heart
  43. the action potential in all muscle cells, as in neurons, is...
    a wave of depolarization of the plasma membrane
  44. A synctium is...
    a tissue in which cytoplasm of different cells can communicate via gap junctions.
  45. in cardiac muscle, the gap junctions are found in the...
    intercalated disks (the connection between cardiac muscle cells)
  46. intercalated disks are the connection between
    cardiac muscle cells
  47. the major difference between neurons and cardiac muscle cells is that cardiac muscles are...
    functional synctium
  48. the action potential in the heart is transmitted from the atrial synctium to the ventricles  by the...
    cardiac conduction
  49. when GnRH is inhibited, it also inhibits...
    FSH and LH
  50. When LH (Leuteninzing Hormone) surges in the ovarian cycle, what event results?
    Ovulation
  51. Which area of the heart is most likely to be initially affected by increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries?
    the right ventricle
  52. How would blocking the gated Na+ channels prevent the transmission of messages in nerves?
    if blocked, the neuronal membrane cannot depolarize
  53.  what two systems are involved in transporation and defense/
    cardiovascular and lymphatic
  54. what are the principal organs of the lymphatic system? (5)
    lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, spleen, thymus and tonsils
  55. what systems are responsible for, respiration, nutririton and execretion?
    respiratory, digestive and urinary
  56. what are the organs of the respiratory system? (5)
    Lungs, bronchial tree, trachea, larnyx, nasal cavity
  57. what are the organs in the digestive system? (7)
    stomach, small and large intestines,  esophagus, liver, mouth , pancreas.
  58. what organs are in the urinary system? (4)
    kidneys, uteres, bladder, urethra
  59. what is the organ of the integumentary system?
    skin
  60. what are the organs of the skeletal system? (2)
    bones, ligaments
  61. what are the organs of the muscular system (2)
    skeletal muscles, tendons
  62. what are the organs of the nervous system? (4)
    brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs
  63. the endocrine system has the organs... (5)
    pituitary gland, adrenals, thyroid, parathyroids, pancreas
  64. what is the function of the endocrine system?
    control and regulation of other systems
  65. what is the function of the integumentary system?
    protections, temperature, regulation and sensation
  66. what are the functions of the skeletal system?
    support, protection, movement, mineral and fat storage, blood production
  67. what are the functions of the muscular system?
    movement, posture, heat production
  68. what are the functions of the nervous system?
    control, regulation and coordination of other systems, sensation, memory
  69. the main function of the cardiovascular system?
    exchange and transport of materials
  70. the functions of the lymphatic system?
    immunity, fluid balance
  71. the functions of the respiratory system?
    gas exchange, acid-base balance
  72. the functions of the digestive systems?
    breakdown and absorption of nutrients, elimination of waste
  73. functions of the urinary system?
    execretion of waste, fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance
  74. What kind of cell is the macrophage?
    monocyte
  75. the macrophage's function is...
    to phagocytose debris and microorganisms; amoeboid motility; chemotaxis
  76. What kind of cell is a B cell?
    lymphocytes
  77. what kind of cell is a T cell?
    lymphocyte
  78. What is the role of B cells?
    To mature into plasma cells and produce antibodies
  79. What is the role of T cells?
    Kill virus-infected cells, tumor cells, and reject tissue grafts; also control immune response
  80. What kind of cell is a neutrophil?
    granulocytes
  81. what kind of cell is a eosinophil?
    granulocyte
  82. what kind of cell is a basophil?
    granulocyte
  83. The function of the neutrophil is..
    to phagocytose bacteria resulting in pus; amoeboid motility; chemotaxis
  84. the function of the eosinophil?
    destroy parasites; allergic reactions
  85. the function os the basophil is...
    store and release histamine; allergic reactions
  86. chemotaxis is...
    movement directed by chemical stimuli
  87. Megakaryocytes are.....
    fragmentation of large bone marrow cells
  88. a platelet plug is...
    the progressive accumulation of platelets, attracted by other platelets once adhesion begins.
  89. Thrombus is...
    a blood clot
  90. Fibrinogen is converted into fibrin by....
    a protein called thrombin
  91. hemophilia is...
    an X-linked recessive group of diseases involving excessive bleeding.
  92. heme is ...
    a large multi-ring structure that has a single iron atom bound at its center.
  93. hemoglobin is an excellent ______ carrier.
    oxygen
  94. what three factors stabilize the tense configuration of hemolglobin (in terms of low O2 affinity)?
    • 1. Dereased pH
    • 2. increased PCO2 (level of CO2 in the blood)
    • 3. increased temperature
  95. What are the three ways that carbon dioxide is transported in the blood?
    • 1. Conversion into carbonic acid
    • 2. being stuck onto hemoglobin
    • 3. Can be dissolved in the blood
  96. CO2 can be dissolved in the blood but oxygen cannot because....
    the oxygen isn't soluble in the blood
  97. amino acids and glucose are abosrbed from the digestive tract and carried by a special vein called the _____ to the liver.
    hepatic portal vien
  98. chylomicrons are...
    a type of lipoprotein
  99. lipemia is..
    a condition in which increased amounts of lipids are present in the blood, a normal occurrence after eating
  100. Oncotic pressure is...
    The osmotic pressure  provided by plasma proteins
  101. What are the three steps of oncotic pressure?
    • 1) Water squeezes out into the tissues
    • 2) Concentration of plasma proteins increases
    • 3) water flows back into the capillary from the tissues
  102. lymphatic vessels have...
    valves
  103. larger lymphatic ducts have ______ in their walls.
    smooth muscles
  104. alveoli are the respiratory surface of humans where the exchange ...
    of oxygen from the air is exchanged with carbon dioxide from the blood.
  105. In humans, carbon dioxide that is excreted passes from the blood directly into the...
    alveoli
  106. Under basal conditions, the region of the body that receives the greatest blood flow is the..
    liver
  107. Sickle-cell anemia is a condition where ______ genes are necessary for full development of the disease.
    homozygous recessive
  108. A pulse can be detected most easily in..
    an artery
  109. voltage-gated sodium channels are also called...
    fast sodium channels
  110. the channels involved in the cardic muscle action potential is called...
    slow calcium channels
  111. what acts as the pacemaker of the heart?
    the cells of the SA node
  112. what are the 3 phases of the SA node?
    phases 0,3 and 4
  113. the SA node has ________ resting potential
    unstable
  114. phase 4 of the SA node is...
    automatic slow depolarization
  115. phase 4 of the SA node is caused by...
    sodium leak channels
  116. Phase 0 of the SA node is caused by...
    an inward flow of ca2+
  117. Phase 0 of the SA node is...
    the upstroke of the pacemaker
  118. skeletal muscle cells and other myocytes depolarize because of a ___ influx, not ___ like the SA node.
    • Na+
    • Ca2+
  119. the Ca2+ channels operate _____ than the Na+ channels
    faster
  120. Phase 3 of the SA node is...
    repolarization
  121. Phase 3 of the SA node is caused by...
    closure of the Ca2+ channels and opening of the K+ channels leading to K+ coming out the cell.
  122. The SA node has the most ____ leak channels of all the conduction system.
    Na+
  123. Phase 0 =
    depolarization
  124. Phase 1 =
    intial repolarization
  125. Phase 2 =
    plateau
  126. phase 3 =
    repolarization
  127. phase 4 =
    resting membrane potential
  128. The action potential spreads down the special conduction pathway  which transmits action potentials without.....
    contracting
  129. the special conduction pathway connects the SA node to the....
    AV Node
  130. the pathway that connects the SA and AV node is called...
    internodal tract
  131. AV bundle = bundle of...
    His
  132. The AV bundle divides into the right and left...
    bundle branches
  133. the bundle brances of the AV bundle turns into...
    purkinje fibers
  134. what allows the impulase of spread rapidly and evenly over both ventricles of the heart?
    the purkinje fibers
  135. what regulates the rate of contraction in the heart?
    autonomic nervous system
  136. the intrinsic firing rate of the SA node is about .____ beats per minute
    120
  137. the reason that the normal heart rate is about 60-80 beats per minute is that....
    the parasympathetic nervous system continually inhibits depolarization of the SA node
  138. the parasympathetic nervous system continually inhibits _________  of the SA node
    depolarization
  139. The _____ nerve contains preganglionic axons which synapse in ganglia near the SA node.
    vagus
  140. what chemical inhibits depolarization by binding to receptors on the cells of the SA node?
    ACh (acetylcholine)
  141. the constant level of inhibition provided by the vagus nerve is known as .....
    vagal tone
  142. The role of the parasympathtic system in controlling the heart is to...
    modulate the rate by inhibiting rapid automaticity
  143. baroreceptors are receptors that....
    monitor blood pressure
  144. baroreceptors monitor the blood pressure by...
    sending signals to the CNS to increase the vagal tone and decrease the sympathetic input
  145. where are the baroreceptors located?
    in the aortic arch and the cartoid arteries
  146. out of this blood pressure = 120/80 mm Hg, the systolic pressure is the_____ and the diastolic pressure is the ____
    • 120
    • 80
  147. the systolic pressure is...
    the highest pressure that ever occurs in the circulatory system as the blood pressure is being taken
  148. the diastolic pressure is...
    the lowest pressure that occurs between heartbeats
  149. the systolic pressure is attained as...
    the ventricles contract
  150. the pulse pressure is the difference between...
    the systolic and diastolic pressures
  151. blood pressure is taken with a ...
    sphygmomanometer
  152. tissues in need of extra blood flow are able to requisition it themselves via...
    local autoregulation
  153. buffers in blood maintain a constant pH of...
    7.4
  154. the principal blood buffer is...
    bicarbonate (HCO3-)
  155. the five electrolytes are...
    Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+ and Mg2+
  156. Albumin is essential for the maintenance of _______pressure.
    oncotic
  157. the principal metabolic waste product is....
    Urea
  158. Urea is a breakdown product of...
    amino acids
  159. urea is a carrier of excess ....
    nitrogen
  160. the breakdown of heme is...
    bilirubin
  161. the hematocrit is...
    the volume of blood occupied by the RBCs
  162. the normal hematocrit in males is...
    40-45%
  163. the normal hematocrit in females is...
    35-40%
  164. leukocytes are.....
    white blood cells
  165. the total blood composition is...
    • 54% of plasma
    • 1% of leukocytes
    • 45% of hematocrit
  166. blood plasma consists of... (8)
    water, electrolytes, glucose, hormones, wastes, plasma proteins, lipoproteins
  167. the 3 plasma proteins are...
    albumin, immunoglobulin and fibrinogen
  168. the hemolytic disease of the newborn is called...
    erythroblastosis fetalis
  169. what happens in the hemolytic disease of the newborn ?
    blood cells get destroyed because of a transfusion reaction because of sensitization
  170. sensitization is...
    when antibodies to the Rh antigen do not develop unless a person with Rh- blood is exposed to Rh+ blood.
  171. transfusion reaction is...
    when RBCs clump because they are the incorrect blood type
  172. O blood type can donate to...
    everybody
  173. A blood type can donate to
    A and AB
  174. B blood type can donate to..
    B and AB
  175. AB blood type can donate to..
    AB
  176. Blood group A antibodies
    anti-B
  177. Blood group B antibodies
    Anti-A
  178. Blood group AB antibodies
    None
  179. Blood group O antibodies
    Anti-A and anti-B
  180. Blood group A antigens
    A antigen
  181. Blood group B antigens
    B antigen
  182. Blood group AB antigens
    A and B antigens
  183. Blood group O antigens
    none
  184. where do T-lymphocytes mature?
    the thymus
  185. the thymus degenerates during adolescence and adulthood, becoming largely....
    nonfunctional
  186. the spleen destroys ...
    aged RBCs
  187. the endocrine system controls body homeostasis over hours and days by promoting communication among various tissues and organs through....
    the secretion of hormones
  188. hormones are secreted by...
    endocrine organs
  189. exocrine organs secrete their products into...
    the external environment
  190. the exocrine glands are... (5)
    salivary glands, mammary glands, pancreatic acinar calls and sweat glands
  191. the two main types of hormones are..
    • peptide hormone
    • steroid hormone
  192. peptide hormones are (hydrophillic or hydrophobic)?
    hydrophillic
  193. peptide hormones are made in...
    the ER and golgi
  194. peptide hormones are stored in...
    vesicles
  195. peptide hormones ______ in the plasma
    dissolve
  196. peptide hormones bind to receptors on...
    the cell surface (cant diffuse thru membrane b.c hydrophillic)
  197. peptide hormones induce secon messenger cascades that result in....
    modifying the existing enzymes and proteins
  198. peptide hormones are rapid but....
    short-lived
  199. steroid hormone (hydrophilic or hydrophobic)
    hydrophobic
  200. steroid hromones are made ...
    from cholesterol in the SER
  201. steroid hormones ______ stored
    are not
  202. steroid hromones travel in the blood...
    connected to proteins
  203. steroid hormones diffuse across the plasma membrane and...
    bind to receptors in the ytoplasm of the target cells
  204. steroid hormones go to the nucleus and alter..
    transcription, change amount and types of proteins in the target cell
  205. steroid hormones are slow but...
    long lasting
  206. the serum Ca2+ level is a ....
    physiological endpoint which must be maintianed at constant levels
  207. metaregulators are...
    tropic hormones
  208. ACTh is a ____ hormone
    tropic
  209. hypophysis is another name for...
    the pituitary gland
  210. another name for the anterior pituitary gland is...
    adenohypophysis
  211. what kind of nueron cells secrete hormones into the bloodstream?
    neuroendocrine cells
  212. what are the eight major endocrine glands in the body?
    pancreas, adrenal gland, tthyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalmus, pituitary, ovaries and testes
  213. pancreas is an _____ and ______ gland
    exocrine and endocrine
  214. pancreas is an exocrine organ because it secretes...
    digestive enzymes and bicarbonate into the lumen of the duodenum
  215. exeocrine secretions of the pancreas come from the _______ cells and empty via _______
    • acinar
    • ducts into the gastrointestinal tract
  216. what are the three hormones that the pancreas secretes?
    insuling, glucagon and somatostatin
  217. the three hormones of the pancreas are secreted by the _______ cells
    islet
  218. the pancreatic islet cells are located in the...
    islets of langerhans
  219. in the pancreas, the delta islet cells secrete...
    somatostatin
  220. in the pancreas, the beta islet cells secrete...
    insulin
  221. in the pancreas, the alpha islet cells secrete...
    glucagon
  222. what are insulin's four main functions in the body?
    • 1. increasing cellular uptake of glucose
    • 2. promoting formation of glycogen from glucose in the liver
    • 3. reducing glucose concentration in the blood
    • 4. increasing protein and triglyceride synthesis
  223. an adrenal gland sits on each...
    kidney
  224. the two major regions of the adrenal gland are...
    the cortex and the medulla
  225. the adrenal cortex is made up of...
    • aldosterone
    • cortisol
    • sex hormones
  226. the adrenal medulla is made up of...
    epinephrine
  227. the main mineral secreted by the adrenal cortex is the....
    aldosterone
  228. the thyroid is a flat gland located...
    in the neck in front of the larynx
  229. cretinsim arises from a deficency of ________ hormone in the first six months of life.
    thyroid
  230. the peptide hormone, calcitonin is produced in ________ cells
    parafollicular cells
  231. the hypothalamus regulates..
    the endocrine system and the automatic nervous system
  232. the hypothalamus, recieves input from the ________ and _______systems, and regulate output from the pituitay glands.
    • cerebral cortex
    • limbic systems
  233. the pituitary gland is located..
    on the underside of the brain
  234. the front half of the pituitary gland is called the _________, while the back is called ________.
    • anterior pituitary
    • posterior pituitary
  235. the four main hormones that are secreted by the anterior pituitary are...
    • thyroids stimulating hormone
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • lutenizing hormone
    • follicle stimulating hormone
    • growth hormone = somatotropin
    • prolactin
  236. the two hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are...
    • antidiuretic hromone
    • oxytocin
  237. the hypothalamus' secretes hormones that are..
    releasing and inhibiting factors (peptide)
  238. the target and effect of the hypothalmus' releasing and inhibiting factors is..
    the anterior pituitary and to modify activity
  239. the target and effect of the anterior pituitary's Growth hormone (GH) is....
    the whole body, increases bone and muscle growth and increases cell turnover rate
  240. the target and effect of the prolactin hormone is..
    • the mammary gland
    • milk production
  241. the target and effect of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is..
    • thyroid
    • increase of synthesis and relaease of TH
  242. the target and effect of the adrenocoticrotropic hormone is..
    • the whole body
    • increases the growth and secretory activity of the adrenal cortex
  243. the target and effect of the luteinizing hormone is..
    • ovary / testes
    • ovulation / testosterone synthesis
  244. the target and effect of the follicle stimulating hormone is..
    • ovary / testes
    • follicle development / spermatogenesis
  245. the target and effect of the antidiuretic hormone is..
    • kidney
    • water retention
  246. the target and effect of the oxytocin hormone is..
    • breast / uterus
    • milk letdown / contraction
  247. the target and effect of the thyroid hormone is
    Child and adult)
    • whole body
    • Child: neceassary for physical and mental development
    • Adult: increases metabolic rate and temperature
  248. the target and effect of the calcitonin hormone is..
    • the bone and kidney
    • lowers the serum [Ca2+] levels
  249. the target and effect of the parathyroid hormone is..
    • the bone, kidneys and small intestine
    • raises serum [Ca2+]
  250. the target and effect of the thymosin hormone is..
    (children only)
    • Whole body
    • T cell development during childhood
  251. the target and effect of the epinephrine (adrenaline) hormone is..
    • whole body
    • sympathetic stress response (rapid)
  252. the target and effect of the cortisol hormone is..
    • whole body
    • longer-term stress response, increase in blood glucose levels, increase in protein catabolism, decrease in inflammation and immunity
  253. the target and effect of the aldosterone hormone is..
    • kidney
    • increases sodium reabsorption to increase the blood pressure
  254. an adrenal tumor can overproduce ________ causing masculinization or feminization.
    sex steroids
  255. insulin is absent or ineffctive in ...
    diabetes mellitus
  256. the target and effect of the insulin hormone is..
    • whole body
    • decreases glucose levels in blood and increases glycogen and fat storage
  257. the target and effect of the glucagon hormone is..
    • whole body
    • increases blood glucose levels and decreases glycogen and fat storage
  258. the target and effect of the somatostatin hormone is..
    • whole body
    • inhibits many digestive processes
  259. the target and effect of the testosterone hormone is..
    • whole body
    • male characteristics, spermatogenesis
  260. the target and effect of the estrogen hormone is..
    • whole body
    • female characteristics and endometrial growth
  261. the target and effect of the progesterone hormone is..
    • whole body
    • endometrial secrection, pregnancy
  262. the target and effect of the atrial natriuretic factor hormone is..
    • kidney
    • increse urination to decrease blood pressure
  263. the target and effect of the erythroprotein hormone is..
    • bone marrow
    • increase RBC synthesis
  264. the levels of skin from outside to inside are...
    • epidermis
    • dermis
    • hypodermis = (subcutaneous tissue)
  265. the epidermis is composed of ...
    stratified squamous epithelial cells
  266. new skin cells regenerate at the...
    stratum basale
  267. keratin helps make the skin...
    waterproof
  268. melanin is produced by cells called...
    melanocytes
  269. the dermis contains...
    blood vessels, tissue matrices, sensory receptors, sudoriferous (sweat) glands, sebaceous (oil) glands and hair follicles
  270. ceruminous glands are...
    wax glands (ear wax)
  271. sweat glaands are responsive to ...
    aldosterone
  272. humans are ___________, meaning their body temp is relatively constant
    homeotherms
  273. body heat is generated by...
    metabolic processes and muscle contraction
  274. homeotherms can increae their body temperature by burning special fat called...
    brown adipose tissue
  275. four main ways to produce body heat are...
    • 1) contraction of skeletal muslces
    • 2) skin insulation
    • 3) constriction of blood vessels in the dermis =  (cutaneous vasoconstriction)
    • 4) external protection (clothes, blankets)
  276. dissipation of excess heat is accoplished by...
    sweating and dilation of blood vessels int he dermis = (cutaneous vasodilation)
  277. the Na concentration is higher on the ______ of the cell
    outside
  278. the K concentration is higher on the ______ of the cell
    inside
  279. the cell's interior cell is electrically ________ relative to its exterior
    negative
  280. a neuron's resting potential is...
    -70 millivolts
  281. the thresold of the action potential in nerve cells are ____ mV
    -50mV
  282. when the threshold of the action potential in nerves is reached...what happens?
    voltage-gated sodium channels open
  283. the mV when the nerve channel is inactivated is...
    35mV
  284. at 35mV in the never cell the ______ opens up.
    voltage gated potassium channels
  285. the absolute refractory period is...
    when the neuron is unsusceptible to additional stimulation
  286. the relative refractory period is when
    when the neuron is susceptible to additional stimulation  but requires a stronger stimulus
  287. neurons can conduct impulses faster due to the _______ of their axons
    myelination
  288. the unsheathed areas on the axons are called....
    nodes of Ranvier
  289. the neuron that releases neurotransmitters are called..
    presynaptic nuerons
  290. the neuorons that recieve neurotransmitters are called
    postsynaptic neurons
  291. the space in between the pre and post synaptic neurons is called..
    the synaptic cleft
  292. most post synaptic receptors are.....
    ligand-gated ion channels
  293. ACH triggers skeletal muscle contraction and is degraded by the enzyme..
    acetylcholinerase
  294. Epineprhine is oxidized and methylated to inactivate ....
    metabolites
  295. Epineprhine is oxidized and methylated to inactivate metabolites by _______ and ______
    • monoamine oxidase (MAO)
    • catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT)
  296. neurons that carry infromation away from the CNS are called...
    efferent
  297. neurons that carry information to the CNS are called...
    afferent
  298. The sensory function of the nervous system is carried out by the...
    PNS
  299. the integrative function of the nervous sytem is carried out by the....
    CNS
  300. _________ neurons carry information from the CNS to organs
    motor
  301. the CNS is composed of..
    the brain and spinal cord
  302. The PNS is composed of...
    all nerves and sensory structures outside the brain and spinal cord
  303. the PNS is composed of..
    the somatic and automatic systems
  304. the somatic system involves..
    voluntary control of skeletal muscle
  305. the autonomic system involves..
    involuntary control of glands and smooth muscle
  306. the two divisions of the autonomic system are...
    the sympthetic and parasympathetic systems
  307. the sympathetic system is the
    "fight or flight"
  308. the parasympathetic system is the...
    "rest and digest"
  309. the parasympathetic system _______ digestive glands, _______motility and ________sphincters
    • stimulates
    • stimulates
    • relaxes
  310. the sympathetic system _______ digestive glands, _______motility and ________sphincters
    • inhibits
    • inhibits
    • contracts
  311. the parasympathetic system  _________ the bladder and ______ the urethral sphincter
    • contracts
    • relaxes
  312. the sympathetic system  _________ the bladder and ______ the urethral sphincter
    • relaxes
    • contracts
  313. the parasympathetic system _______ heart rate and contractility.
    decreases
  314. the sympathetic system _______ heart rate and contractility and _______ blod flow to the skeletal muscle
    • increases
    • increases
  315. the sympathetic system increases _______ of the skin
    sweating and bloodflow
  316. the parasympathetic system _____ pupils and makes a _______ accomodation
    • constricts
    • near vision
  317. the sympathetic system _____ pupils and makes a _______ accomodation
    • dialates
    • far vision
  318. the sympathetic system realeases _______ from the adrenal medulla
    epineprhine
  319. the parasympathetic system causes ______ in the gentials
    erection/lubrication
  320. the sympathetic system causes ______ in the gentials
    ejaculation/orgasm
  321. The major parts of the hindbrain are...
    medulla, pons and cerebellum
  322. the midbrain is a relay for...
    visual and auditory information
  323. the major parts of the forebrain are...
    • diencephalon: thalamus and hypothalamus
    • telencephalon: cerbral hemispeheres, corpus callosum, cerebrum, cerebral crotex
  324. the frontal lobe initiates...
    all voluntary movement and are involved in complex reasoning skills and problem solving
  325. the parietal lobes are involved in...
    general sensations and gustation
  326. the temporal lobes process...
    auditory and olfactory sensation and are involved in short term memory
  327. the occiptial lobe processes..
    visual sensations
  328. the speech center of the brain is called ...
    broca's area
  329. general interpration in the brain is caused by the region called...
    wernicke's area
  330. the basal nuceli are composed of gray matter and regulate...
    body movement
  331. the limbic system is located....
    between the cerebrum  and the diencephalon
  332. the limbic systems includes...
    the amyglada, cingluate gyrus, and the hippocampus
  333. the limbic system is important in...
    emotional and memory function
  334. the general function for the spinal cord is..
    simple reflexes
  335. the two sepcific funations of the spinal cord is..
    • controls simple stracth and tendon reflexes
    • control primitive processes such as walking, urination
  336. the general function of the medulla is..
    involuntary functions
  337. the specifice functions of the medulla is...
    • autonomic processes
    • controls reflex reactions
    • relays sensory info to the cerebellum and thalamus
  338. the general function of the pons is..
    relay station and balance
  339. the specific function of the pons is...
    • antigravity posture and balance
    • connects spinal corde and medulla with upper regions of brain
    • relay info to cerebellem and thalamus
  340. the general function of tha cerebellum is
    eye movement
  341. the specicfic functions of the cerebellum are..
    • intergartion of audio and visual info
    • visual and auditory reflex
    • wakefulness and consciousness
    • posture and muscle tone
  342. the general function of the thalamus is...
    intergrating center and relay station
  343. the specific funtions of the thalamus are...
    • relay center for somatic (conscious) sensation
    • relay info b/t spinal cord and cerebral cortex
  344. the general function of the hypothalamus are..
    homeostasis and behavior
  345. the specific function fo the hypothalmus are..
    • homeostasis function
    • primitive emotions
    • pituitary gland
  346. the general function of the basal nuclie is...
    movement
  347. the specific functions of the basal nuclei are...
    • body movement and muscle tone
    • learned movement patterns
    • general rhythm movements
    • subconcious adjustments of conscious movements
  348. the general function of the limbic system is...
    emotion, memory and learning
  349. the specicific functions of the limbic system are...
    • emotional states,
    • links conscious and unconscious portions of the brain
    • memory strage and retrieval
  350. the general function of the cerbral cortex is....
    preception, skeletal muscle movement, intergration center
  351. the general function of the corpus callosum is..
    connection of the left and right cerebral hemispeheres
  352. the sympathtic system _________ energy
    mobilizes
  353. the parasymptathetic system _______ energy
    stores
  354. the sympathetic system's preganglionic soma is located ...
    in the thoracolumbar region (thoraic and lumbar spinal cord)
  355. the parasympathetic system's preganglionic soma is located ...
    in the craniosacral region (brainstem and sacral spinal cord)
  356. the sympathetic preganglionic axon length is...
    short
  357. the parasympathetic preganglionic axon length is...
    long
  358. the sympathetic ganglia is _____cord, ____target
    • close to
    • far from
  359. the parasympathetic ganglia is _____cord, ____target
    • far from
    • close to
  360. the sympathetic preganglionic axon length is...
    long (norepineprhine)
  361. the parasympathetic preganglionic axon length is...
    short (ACh)
  362. the main mineralocorticord is...
    aldosterone
  363. the four mechanoreceptors are...
    strecth receptors, tactile receptors, proprioreceptors and auditory receptors
  364. two chemoreceptors are...
    tatse receptors and olfactory receptors
  365. the name of pain receptors are called ....
    nocireceptors
  366. rod and cones of the eyes are ______ receptors..
    electromagnetic
  367. auditory hair cells are _____ ... (receptor type)
    mechanoreceptor
  368. olfactory nerve endings are _______ receptors
    chemoreceptors
  369. taste cells are _______ receptors
    chemoreceptors
  370. pacinian caorpuscles are _______ receptors
    mechanoreceptors
  371. the vestibular apparatus is located in the....
    inner ear
  372. the external (outer) ear is composed of...
    pinna
  373. pinna funnels sounds waves into the....
    ear canal
  374. at the middle ear, soundwaves cause vibartion in the...
    tympanic membrane
  375. vibration in the tympanic membrane causes what three ear bones to move?
    malleus, incus and stapes
  376. in the inner ear, sound sets up vibrations in the fluid of the ....
    cochlea
  377. what causes bending of auditory hair cells in the organ of corti?
    cochlea
  378. the cochlear and vestibular nerve from the two brances of the ________nerve.
    acoustic
  379. the acoustic nerve is the ___ cranial nerve
    8th
  380. whats the path of sound to hearing?
    (16)
    • sound waves
    • auricle
    • external auditroy canal
    • tympanic membrane
    • malleus
    • incus
    • stapes
    • oval window
    • perilymph
    • endolymph
    • basilar membrane
    • auditory hair cells
    • tectorial membrane
    • neurotransmitters stimulate bipolar auditory neurons
    • brain
    • perception
  381. in the eyes, the pathway of light starts with it enetering the...
    • cornea
    • traverses the aqueous humor
    • pases through the pupil
    • proceeds through the lens and vitreous humor
    • reaches light receptor of retina
  382. the retina transmits electric singal to the brain via...
    optic nerve
  383. the transparent structure of the eyes that focuses light rays on the retina is called the...
    lens
  384. Myopia is...
    nearsightedness
  385. hyperopia is...
    farsightedness
  386. myopia occurs when the lens focuses light from a distant object in _____ of the retina
    front
  387. hyperopia occurs when the lens focuses light from a nearby object in _____ of the retina
    back
  388. emmetropia is...
    normal vision
  389. the pigment that mediates rod reception is...
    phodopsin
  390. light reception is cones is mediated by...
    opsin
  391. the colored part of the eye is...
    the iris
  392. the siris contains muscles that..
    dilate and constrict to regulate the amount of light that reaches the retina
  393. what changes that shape of the lens as the eye shifts it's focus from distant to nearby objects?
    ciliary muscles
  394. the pathway of inhaled air is...(10)
    • nose
    • nasal cavity
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • terminal bronchioles
    • respiratory bronchioles
    • alveolar ducts
    • alveoli
  395. the trachea branches into two .....
    primary bronchi
  396. the larnyx contains...
    epiglottis and vocal chords
  397. no gas exchange occurs in the terminal bronchioles because...
    the smooth muscles of the walls of the bronchioles are too think to allow gas diffusion
  398. the pressure in the plueral space of the lungs is called..
    pleaural pressure
  399. the membrane that lines the surface of the lungs is called..
    visceral pleura
  400. the memberane that lines the chest cavity is called...
    the parietal pleura
  401. the pleura space is in between...
    the parietal and visceral pleura
  402. the steps of inspiration are...
    • diaphragm contracts
    • volume of chest cavity expands
    • pleural pressure decreases
    • lungs expand outward
    • pressure in alveoli becomes negative
    • air enters lungs and alveoli
  403. nitrogen makes up ___% of air
    80
  404. oxygen makes up ___% of air
    20
  405. water makes up ___% of air
    .5%
  406. CO2 makees up ___% of air
    .04%
  407. the strecthing of the lung causes..
    inspiration to be inhibited
  408. the increase of PCO2 in terms of ventiallation causes..
    a decrease in pH via carbonis anhydrased
  409. the decrease of pH in terms of ventilation causes...
    an increase in respiratory rate
  410. the decrease of PO2 causes ..
    an incresase in respiratory rate..
  411. chemical irritation in terms of ventillation causes...
    coughing and/or bronchoconstriction
  412. the three different cell types of bones are...
    osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts
  413. the two types of bone marrow are...
    red and yellow
  414. red bone marros is the site of...
    red blood cell and platelet production
  415. yello marrow is filled with...
    adipocytes (fat cells)
  416. what attahces muscles to bones?
    tendons
  417. osteoblasts synthesizes...
    bone until it is surrounded by bone
  418. osteoclasts continually...
    destroy bones
  419. bones destroyed by osteoclasts must be replaced by...
    osteoblasts
  420. PTH effects bones by..
    stimulating osteoclast activity
  421. calcitrol effects bones by...
    stiumlating osteoclasts activity (minor effect)
  422. calcitonin effects bones by...
    inhitbiting osteoclast activity
  423. tricpes and biceps are _____ to one another
    antagonistic
  424. thick filaments are not connected to...
    the Z line
  425. ____ filaments are connected to the Z line
    thin
  426. a single sacromere is..
    a segment of muscle fiber between to Z lines
  427. the length of a myosin (thick) filament corresponds to...
    the A band
  428. Tha A band has a fixed lentgh because..
    the thick filaments do not contract
  429. the given length of a thin filament that does not overlap with any thick filament is called..
    the I band
  430. in the middle of the sacromere, with only myosin filaments with no overlapping actin is called the...
    H zone
  431. a bundle or group of skeletal muscles fibers (cells) is called...
    a fascicle
  432. if the myofiber's troponin complex is exposed to calcium ions, the actin and myosin.....
    interact at their crossbridges, the sacromere shortens and the fiber contracts
  433. ACh causes muscle ....
    contraction
  434. at rest, tropomyosin blocks the ____ binding sites
    myosin
  435. the cell membrane of the muscle cell is called..
    sarcolemma
  436. the cytoplasm of the muscle cell is called..
    sarcoplasm
  437. the ER of the muscle cell is called
    the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  438. the sarcoplasmic reticulum stores...
    calcium ions
  439. the sarcolemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum is roughly ______ with each other
    continous
  440. ACh inhibition causes..
    paralysis
  441. Ca ____ the muscles
    relaxes
  442. myofibers store small amounts of high energy chemicals called..
    phosphocreatinine
  443. in smooth muscle cells, ca ions bind to a calcium binding protein called...
    calmodulin
  444. the calcium-calmodulin complex interacts with a protein called..
    myosin light chain kinase
  445. myosin light chain kinase directly ______ the mysoin heads.
    phosphorylates
  446. renal
    kidneys
  447. watses that must be execreted in the urine are...
    • urea
    • sodium
    • bicarbonate
    • water
  448. the main thee goals of the renal system are..
    • execretion of hydrophilic wates
    • maintenance of constant solute concentration and constant pH
    • maintenance of constant fluid volume
  449. filtratioon of the renal system is...
    the passgae of blood over a filter and being squeezed out into the renal tubule
  450. the fluid in the renal tubule is called ____ and goes back into the urine.
    filtrate
  451. selective reabsorption of the renal system is...
    taking back useful items while leaving wastes in the renal tubule
  452. the lasts steps of urine formation are..
    concentration and dilution
  453. purified blood is returned to the circulatory system from the renal system via the large ....
    renal vein
  454. the larges renal vien empties into the _______ in the heart
    inferior vena cava
  455. urine leaves each kidney in a .....
    uterer
  456. urterer from the kidneys empty into the.....
    urinary bladder
  457. the outer region of the kidneys is called the...
    cortex
  458. the inner region of the renal system is called the..
    medulla
  459. the medullary pyramids of the kidneys are...
    pyramid shaped striations within the medulla
  460. the appaearance of medullary pyramids are due to...
    collecting ducts
  461. in the kidneys, urine empties from the _______ and leaves the _______ at the top of the pyramid.
    • collecting ducts
    • medulla
  462. the tip of the medullary pyramids are called...
    papilla
  463. each papilla in the kidneys empties into a space called a ...
    calyx
  464. the calcyes of the kidneys converge to form...
    the renal pelvis
  465. the renal pelvis is a large space where ____ collects and empties into the ______.
    • urine
    • uterers
  466. the functional unit of the kidneys is the...
    nephron
  467. blood from the renal artery flows into an ....
    afferent atriole
  468. afferent atrioles branch into a ball of capillaries known as...
    glomerulus
  469. blood flows from the glomerulus into an..
    efferent atriole
  470. constriction of the efferent atrioles causes high blood pressure in the ..
    glomerulus
  471. high pressue in the glomerulus causes blood plasma to leak out of the....
    glomerulus capillaries
  472. the fluid passes through the glomerulus capillaries through to a filter called...
    glomerular basement membrane
  473. the fluid that eneters the glomerular basement membrane also enter ...
    Bowman's capsule
  474. the loop of henle is a _____multiplier
    countercurrent
  475. the significance of the loop of henle is..
    that the ascending and descending linbs go in opposite directions and have different permeabilities
  476. the loop of henle makes the medulla very....
    salty
  477. the loop of henle makes the medulla very salty, which facilitates water reabsorption for the....
    collecting duct
  478. the kidney is able to make urine with a much higher osmolarity than plasma because of...
    the loop of henle
  479. calcitonin's source in the renal system is...
    C cells
  480. EPO source is...
    kidney
  481. pathway of food, from the mouth to the sphincter..
    mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ascending colon, tranverse colon, descending colon, rectum, sphincter
  482. salivary amylase initiates..
    the digestion of starch, glycosidc bonds to produce component sugars
  483. peristalis
    squeezing of circuluar and longitudnal muscles to get food down esophagus
  484. pepsin is secreted by ...
    chief cells
  485. the ____ nerve stimulates the production and secretion of  HCl.
    vagus
  486. the pancreatic lipase serves in the enzymatic breakdown of ...
    fats
  487. trypsin and chymotrypsin and the two most important ______ enzyme in the GI tract.
    protein-digesting
  488. poteolytic means...
    protein-digesting
  489. peyers patches are a part of the...
    immune system
  490. ____ are microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestines..
    villi
  491. ______ are microscopic folding of the cell membranes of indivial intestinal epithelial cells
    microvilli
  492. the villus contains small lymphatic vessels called...
    lacteals
  493. peyers pacthes are...
    collections of lymphocytes
  494. the villus is a...
    finger like projection of the wall off the gut in the lumen
  495. bile is produced in the ____ and stored in the ______.
    • liver
    • gallbladder
  496. bile acts an an...
    emulsifier
  497. an emulsifier (bile) helps to..
    seperate large globules of fat molecules into smaller one to inscrease the surface area for the action of lipase
  498. bile enters the midsection of the duodenum via...
    the common bile duct
  499. the liver converts glucose into...
    glycogen
  500. the liver converts amino acids into...
    keto acids and urea
  501. the ____valve seperates the ileum from the cecum
    ileocecal
  502. intrinsic factor is..
    a glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach
  503. the appendix is a...
    finger like appendage of the cecum
  504. colonic bacteris supplies us with...
    vitamin K
  505. vitamin K is required for...
    blood coagulation
  506. the prostate and bulbourethral glands are ______ glands.
    accessory
  507. the epididymis is...
    a long coiled tube located on the back of each testicle
  508. the site of spermatogenesis is...
    the seminiferous tubules
  509. the walls of the seminiferous tubules are formed by cells called..
    steroli cells
  510. steroli cells, protect and nuture developing....
    sperm
  511. leydig cells are responsible for..
    androgen (testosterone) synthesis
  512. the urethra is the...
    tube inside the penis
  513. the epididymis empties into..
    a ductus deferens
  514. ductus deferens leads into ...
    the urethra
  515. the ingunal canal is..
    a tunnel that travels along the body wall toward the hip bone
  516. the ductus defrens join the seminal vesicles to form..
    the ejaculatory duct
  517. the ejaculatory ducts from btoh sides join the...
    urethra
  518. MIF (mullerian inhibiting factor) is produced by ______ and causes....
    • the testes
    • regression of the mullerian ducts
  519. the innermost lining of the uterus is the...
    endometrium
  520. the thick layer of smooth muscles that surround the endometrium is called the..
    myometrium
  521. each uterine tube ends in a bunch of finger like structures called...
    fimbriae
  522. the fimbriae brush up against the...
    ovary
  523. female lubrication is secreted by the ____ glands
    greater vestibular

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