Endocrinology and toxicology
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Endocrinology and toxicology
endocrinology and toxicology for MLT
These act in conjunction with nervous systems to maintain a state in the body which functions optimally and is disease free.
These are chemical substances produced and secreted into the blood by an organ or tissue, and has a specific effect on target tissue.
Hormones affect the body as a _______.
What are the three chemical types of hormones?
Steroid hormones are produced in what three places?
These are lipid soluble hormones synthesized from cholesterol
What is the plasma half life of steroidal hormones?
What are the two types of protein hormones?
These hormones are synthesized as prohormones.
These hormones are composed of alpha- and beta- chains.
These are water soluble hormones that are produced, then stored and released as needed.
These hormones have properties intermediate to steroids and proteins.
These amines behave like protein hormones.
Thes amines behave like steroid hormones
These hormones are thought to produce effects via interaction with receptor on outer surface of cell membranes.
This acts a second messenger by translating hormone binding into cellular action
Cellular action in protein hormones ceases rapidly after loss of _______.
These hormones pass through cell membrane and interact with an intracellular receptor.
This is the portion of the brain located in walls and floor of third ventricle, directly above pituitary gland.
What are five hypothalamus associated disorders?
Growth failure in emotionally deprived children
This protein hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and is involved in cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth.
Growth hormone (GH)
What are three conditions that would cause a decrease in adult growth hormone?
Decreased muscle mass
Increased body fat
Decreased bone density (osteoporosis)
This protein hormone is produced in the anterior pituitary gland and is involved in milk production.
After delivery prolactin levels can reach what levels?
This peptide hormone is produced in the posterior pituitary and stimulates water reabsorption by kidneys.
This peptide hormone is produced in the posterior pituitary and stimulates uterine muscle contraction.
To produce these two hormones the thyroid gland actively acquires iodine.
These two amide hormones are produced in the thyroid. They stimulate O2 consumption and metabolic rate in tissue.
This peptide hormone is produced in the thyroid and lowers blood calcium levels.
What is the most useful test for assessing thyroid function?
Serum total T3, rT3, and T4 levels are usually measured by which two assays.
When the eyes protrude because of edema in eye socket tissues in cases of hyperthyroidism or Graves’ disease it is called what?
How many parathyroid glands do most people have?
This peptide hormone is produced in the Parathyroid and raises blood calcium levels.
These are paired organs located atop upper pole of each kidney.
This part of the adrenal gland is linked to sympathetic nervous system.
This part of the adrenal gland is composed of three layers each responsible for different hormones.
These amine hormones are produced in the adrenal medulla and are released in emergency situations.
This steroid hormone is produced in the adrenal cortex; it raises blood glucose levels and stimulates the breakdown of protein.
This steroid hormone is produced in the adrenal cortex; it is used to reabsorb sodium and excrete potassium.
This steroid hormone is produced in the adrenal cortex; it stimulates reproductive organs and brings about sex characteristics.
This syndrome can be caused by and adrenal cortex tumor.
Hormonal secretions by the anterior pituitary are all _______ hormones.
This peptide hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary; it stimulates the adrenal cortex.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
This protein hormone is produced in the anterior pituitary; it is involved in cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth.
This protein hormone is produced in the anterior pituitary; it is involved in milk secretion.
These glycoproteins are produced in the anterior pituitary; they are involved in egg and sperm production.
Gonadotropics (FSH, LH)
This glycoprotein is produced in the anterior pituitary; it stimulates the thyroid.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Pituitary tumors cause ________ secretion.
Where are the Islets of Langerhans located?
What are the three cell types in the Islet of Langerhans and what do they secrete.
Alpha- secrete glucagon
Beta- secrete insulin
Delta- secrete somatostatin
This protein hormone is produced in the pancreas and lowers blood glucose levels.
This protein hormone is produced in the pancreas and raises blood glucose levels.
These steroid hormones are produced in the ovaries and stimulate female sex characteristics.
What hormones does the placenta secrete?
Wide variety of protein hormones
This steroid hormone is secreted by the testes and stimulates male sex characteristics.
This classic hormone methodology is cumbersome and expensive; it requires a host organism.
If the binding reagent is an antibody, the assay is ___________.
If the binding reagent is a transport protein, the assay may be called _____________.
Competitive protein binding assay
If the binding reagent is a receptor, the assay is ________.
What is the simplest way to identify an assay?
By the label used
What is the most commonly used immunoassay?
This type of immunoassay utilizes radio-labeled hormone as tagged hormone.
In this immunoassay, the antibody is labeled instead of hormone.
In this immunoassay, enzyme tag is used vice radioactive label.
What are the two purposes of drug monitoring?
Ascertain effectiveness of dosage
What are the four general processes that a body has to handle a foreign compound?
What are the three routes for absorption?
Parenterally (IV, IM)
What are two factors for optimum utilization in absorption?
Route of administration
Is drug utilized as is or as metabolite
Body interprets drug as __________.
Insoluble drugs are converted to soluble by what organ?
Under normal renal performance, most drugs and their metabolites are excreted in ______ via the ______.
________ have little capacity to eliminate drugs.
This will affect drug disposition due to hormonal changes and increased fluid volume.
What are three diseases that can affect drug disposition?
What admin data is needed for drug testing procedures (5)?
Pt name, SSN, DOB, sex
Date/time of last dose
Date/time of collection
Amount of last dose
Name of drug
What are three appropriate samples for drug testing?
Non-hemolyzed plasma (red/dark blue top)
This is collected prior to dose when drug concentrations are lower.
This is collected after dose (60 min) when drug concentrations are higher.
How long after a dose is a sample collected for peak testing?
Most drugs/metabolites are stable for several days at what temperature?
This methodology detects a wide variety of drugs.
Thin layer chromatography (TLC)
This methodology is better for ID of drugs than TLC.
Gas Chromatography (GC)
This methodology measures drugs simultaneously.
This is the method of choice for drug testing.
This is an effective smooth muscle relaxant that stimulates CNS and increases respiratory rate.
What is the therapeutic and toxic range for Theophylline?
: 10-20 ug/mL
: >25 ug/mL
This drug improves cardiac contractions in CHF, 70% is absorbed orally.
How long after dosing of digoxin should a specimen be collected?
8 hrs after
Digoxin levels may rise ____ ng/mL in first eight hours.
What are the therapeutic and toxic ranges for digoxin?
: 0.8-2.0 ng/ml
: >3 ng/ml
This drug is used to correct ventricular arrhythmias associated with MI, and also digitalis intoxication.
What is the therapeutic and toxic range for lidocaine?
: 1.5-5.0 ug/ml
: .5.0 ug/ml
This drug is used in the treatment and therapy of febrile seizures and neonatal seizures.
Which drug is tested based on the angle change of polarized fluorescence emitted by a fluorescent molecule?
What is the therapeutic range for Phenobarbital?
This is the primary drug in the treatment of absence (petit-mal) and myoclonic seizures.
What is the therapeutic and toxic range for valproic acid?
: 50-100 ug/ml
: >100 ug/ml
This multipurpose antibiotic is quickly diminished due to dose related toxicities primarily aplastic anemia.
What is the therapeutic and toxic range for chloramphenicol?
: 10-20 ug/ml
: >25 ug/ml
This antibiotic is effective against GPC/GPR, S. Epi, S. Aureus; it also prevents cell wall synthesis.
What is the therapeutic range for vancomycin (peak and trough)?
: 5-10 ug/ml
: 30-40 ug/ml
What are the toxic ranges for vancomycin (trough and peak)?
: >20 ug/ml
: >80 ug/ml
Regular checking of __________ levels is used to alert exposed persons to any change in the level of this essential enzyme before it can cause serious illness.
Evaluation of this drug is used secondary to insecticide exposure.
What are the specimen requirements for cholinesterase?
Spate plasma from cell immediately
What is the normal reference value for cholinesterase?
To determine levels of ethanol in blood what is measured?
What is the methodology for ethanol testing?
Reactive enzyme assay (REA)
Ethanol tests are drawn using what tube?
Sodium fluoride (gray top)
Abuse of this commonly used analgesic leads to respiratory alkalosis.
What is the therapeutic and toxic range for salicylate?
: <30 mg/dL
This commonly used analgesic if not taken as directed could cause liver necrosis 3-4 days post OD.
The toxic agent in acetaminophen is the __________ not the parent drug.
What is the antidote for acetaminophen overdose?
What is the therapeutic and toxic range for acetaminophen?
: 10-25 mg/ml
: 100-250 mg/ml
What are the four purposes of testing for drugs of abuse?
Employees exhibiting s/s of abuse
What are the two methods to screen for drugs of abuse?
What are the two methods to confirm drugs of abuse?
What are the specimen requirements for drugs of abuse?
What are the initial and confirmatory test levels for marijuana?
: 50 ng/ml
: 15 ng/ml
What is the initial and confirmatory test level for cocaine?
: 300 ng/ml
: 150 ng/ml
What is the initial and confirmatory test level for opiate metabolite?
: 300 ng/ml
: 300 ng/ml