A&P233 Exam 3 Metabolism

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A&P233 Exam 3 Metabolism
2012-08-30 02:41:24
233 Exam Metabolism

Exam 3 Metabolism
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  1. Metabolism
    All the chemical reactions in the body maintaining homeostasis.
  2. Anabolism
    • The synthesis of complex molecules from smaller molecules; uses energy, ATP.
    • Making hormones, organelles or cell membranes from amino acids is anabolism.
  3. Catabolism
    The breakdown of organic molecules to smaller molecules, releasing energy, ATP.
  4. Oxidation
    • the loss of electrons and hydrogen ions, releasing energy.
    • Nutrients such as glucose are broken down or oxidized, electrons and H+ are removed from them inglycolysis, Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain creating ATP for the body.
  5. Reduction
    • the gain of electrons and hydrogen ions, causing energy absorbing reactions.
    • The NAD coenzymes are reduced so they become NADH, electrons and H+ are added to them in the glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
  6. Phosphorylation
    adding a phosphate group and electron energy to a molecule.
  7. Oxidative phosphorylation
    is the process that occurs in the mitochondrion, where electrons areremoved and a phosphate group is added to ADP in the electron transport chain.
  8. 3 Steps to Glucose Catabolism
    • 1. Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm, anaerobic,
    • 2. Krebs cycle or Citric Acid cycle occurs in the mitochondria, aerobic nets 30 ATP
    • 3. Electron Transport Chain, occurs in the mitochondria, aerobic
  9. Minerals
    many used in the electron transport system to transport electron in mitochondrion.
  10. Vitamins-
    Fat soluble – A, D, E, K – stores well in the body
  11. Thyroid Hormone
    determines rate of body metabolism, the rate of all the chemical reactions in the body.
  12. Hyperthyroid
    • excess hormone, increased calorie use, higher basal metabolic rate, leading toweight loss, heart palpitations mood swings, anger, anxiety, exophthalmia,
    • Sympathetic Nervous System also activated with hyperthyroidism.
  13. Hypothyroid
    deficient hormone, decreased calorie use, lower basal metabolic rate, causingweight gain and lethargy in the adult.
  14. BMR – basal metabolic rate
    rate of calorie use when at rest, but not asleep.
  15. Carbohydrates-
    glucose is preferred energy for the body! Liver turns the all othermonosaccharides, fructose and galactose into glucose.
  16. Glycogen
    stored glucose in the liver, muscle and other cells in the body.About one lb. is stored, which is the amount used in 12-24 hours.
  17. Summary of Cellular Respiration – 3 parts
    • 1. Gylcolysis
    • 2. Prep to Krebs Cycle
    • 3. Electron Transport Chain
  18. Gluconeogenesis
    creating glucose occurs using different enzymes in different reactions from catabolism.
  19. Lipid Metabolism
    triglycerides, the stored energy of the body.
  20. In the blood, Lipids travel as lipoproteins so they are soluble in blood in these forms:
    • 1. Chylomicrons- long chain fatty acid packets produced by the intestinal cell that get absorbed bythe lymph lacteals and then go to the liver.
    • 2. VLDL- very low density lipoproteins – made by the liver to carry triglycerides to the muscleand adipose cells for storage.
    • 3. LDL – low density lipoproteins called the “bad cholesterol” (lethal =memory helper) because ofarterial plaques, atherosclerosis. LDL is made by the liver and leaves the liver to deliver cholesterol to the tissues.
    • 4. HDL – high density lipoproteins “good cholesterol” (happy = memory helper). HDL are from thebody cells and transport excess cholesterol back to liver. Has equal amounts of lipid and protein.
  21. Edema
    • a. Increased capillary permeability, allowing leakage, swelling and bruising due to trauma, inflammation,burns and toxins. Allergic reactions can cause bronchial edema due to histamines.
    • b. Low plasma proteins, albumin, causes low vascular osmotic pressure, so fluids move out of thevessels. Occurs with starvation, severe burns, severe liver disease, and severe kidney disease.Patients require protein in diet to keep up with protein losses.
    • c. Increased hydrostatic pressure due to increased blood volume. Congestive Heart Failure, CHF – increased hydrostatic pressure    1) right sided, causing edema in the abdominal cavity or ascites     2) left sided causing edema in the thoracic cavity and pulmonary edema, can be deadly.
    • d. Lymphatic vessel blockage causing an accumulation of fluid normally removed by lymph.
    • e. Kidney disease with anuria, an inability to produce urine, increasing body fluid retention.
  22. Where is the vomiting Center
    The Medulla