Sympathetic Nervous System also activated with hyperthyroidism.
deficient hormone, decreased calorie use, lower basal metabolic rate, causingweight gain and lethargy in the adult.
BMR – basal metabolic rate
rate of calorie use when at rest, but not asleep.
glucose is preferred energy for the body! Liver turns the all othermonosaccharides, fructose and galactose into glucose.
stored glucose in the liver, muscle and other cells in the body.About one lb. is stored, which is the amount used in 12-24 hours.
Summary of Cellular Respiration – 3 parts
2. Prep to Krebs Cycle
3. Electron Transport Chain
creating glucose occurs using different enzymes in different reactions from catabolism.
triglycerides, the stored energy of the body.
In the blood, Lipids travel as lipoproteins so they are soluble in blood in these forms:
1. Chylomicrons- long chain fatty acid packets produced by the intestinal cell that get absorbed bythe lymph lacteals and then go to the liver.
2. VLDL- very low density lipoproteins – made by the liver to carry triglycerides to the muscleand adipose cells for storage.
3. LDL – low density lipoproteins called the “bad cholesterol” (lethal =memory helper) because ofarterial plaques, atherosclerosis. LDL is made by the liver and leaves the liver to deliver cholesterol to the tissues.
4. HDL – high density lipoproteins “good cholesterol” (happy = memory helper). HDL are from thebody cells and transport excess cholesterol back to liver. Has equal amounts of lipid and protein.
a. Increased capillary permeability, allowing leakage, swelling and bruising due to trauma, inflammation,burns and toxins. Allergic reactions can cause bronchial edema due to histamines.
b. Low plasma proteins, albumin, causes low vascular osmotic pressure, so fluids move out of thevessels. Occurs with starvation, severe burns, severe liver disease, and severe kidney disease.Patients require protein in diet to keep up with protein losses.
c. Increased hydrostatic pressure due to increased blood volume. Congestive Heart Failure, CHF – increased hydrostatic pressure 1) right sided, causing edema in the abdominal cavity or ascites 2) left sided causing edema in the thoracic cavity and pulmonary edema, can be deadly.
d. Lymphatic vessel blockage causing an accumulation of fluid normally removed by lymph.
e. Kidney disease with anuria, an inability to produce urine, increasing body fluid retention.