Cardiac Physiology

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Vaishali71
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166156
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Cardiac Physiology
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2012-08-19 13:49:28
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  1. All of the following are componenst of the cardiac conduction system EXCEPT:

    sinoatrial node
    internodal node
    interatrial septum
    atrioventricular node
    interatrial septum
  2. Which coronary artey supplies oxygenated blood to the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node?

    left main
    left anterior descening 
    circumflex
    right coronary artery
    right coronary artery
  3. Which of the following componets of the cardiac conduction system is considered the pacemake of the heart?

    sinoatrial node
    internodal tracts
    atrioventricular node
    bundle of His
    sinoatrial node
  4. The sinoatrial node is located closet to the:

    superior vena cava
    inferior vena cava
    coronary sinus
    right coronary artery
    superior vena cava
  5. The sinoatrial node normalls fires electrical impluses at a rate of:

    60 to 100 per minute
    40 to 60 per minute
    20 to 40 per minute
    10 to 20 per minute
    60 to 100 per minute
  6. The His bundle has an automatic firing rate of between"

    60 to 100 per minute
    40 to 60 per minute
    20 to 40 per minute
    0 to 10 per minute
    40 to 60 per minute
  7. The Purkinje fibers have an automatic firing rate of between:

    60 to 100 per minute
    40 to 60 per minute
    20 to 40 per minute
    10 to 20 per minute
    20 to 40 per minute
  8. Which of the following components of the cardiac conduction system delivers the electrical impusle from the sinoatrial node to the atria?

    internodal tracts
    atrioventricular node
    bundle of His
    bundle branches
    internodal tracts
  9. Which of the following deliver the electrical impulse from the sinoatrial noade to the left atrium?

    Bachmann's
    Bernoulli's 
    Wenkebach
    His
    Bachmann's
  10. Which of the following components of the cardiac conduction system deliver the electrical impulse to the bundle of His after a 0.10 second delay?

    sinoatrial node
    internodal tracts
    atrioventricular node
    bundle of His
    atrioventricular node
  11. The atrioventricular node is located at the floor of the:

    left atrium
    right atrium
    right ventricle
    left ventricle
    right atrium
  12. Which of the following components of the cardiac conduction system deliver the electrical impulse from the atrioventricular node to the bundle branches?

    internodal tracts
    atrioventricular node
    bundle of His
    Purkinje fibers
    bundle of His
  13. Which of the following components fo the cardiac conduction system delivers the electrical impulse from the bundle of His to the ventricles?

    sinoatrial node
    internodal tracts
    His bundle
    right/left bundle branches
    right/left bundle branches
  14. Which of the following components of the cardiac conduction system delivers the electrical impulse from the bundle branches to the ventricular walls?

    sinatrial node
    atrioventricular node
    bundle of His
    Purkinje fibers
    Purkinje fibers
  15. Which of the following terms means the heart can begin and maintain rhythmic activity without the aid of the nervous system?

    automaticity
    excitability
    conductivity
    contractility
    automaticity
  16. Which of the following terms means that cardiac muscle can accept and respond to electrical impulses?

    automaticity
    excitability
    conductivity
    contractility
    excitability
  17. Which of the following terms means that a cardiac cell is able to transfer an electrical impulse to a neighboring cardiac cell?

    automaticity
    excitability
    conductivity
    contractility
    conductivity
  18. Which of the following terms means that the heart responds to an electrical impulse by contracting?

    automaticity
    excitability
    conductivity
    contractility
    contractility
  19. W
  20. Which of the following decipts the electrical activity of the cardiac cell over time?

    Wiggers diagram
    action potential curve
    pressure wedge
    electrocardiogram
    action potentila curve
  21. For the action potential curve, which of the following phases respresent initial cardiac cell depolarization?

    0 to 1
    2
    3
    4
    0 to 1
  22. For the action potential curve, which phase represent a brief period of repolarization?

    0 to 1
    1
    3
    2
    1
  23. For the action potential curve, which phase represents actual cardiac contraction?

    1
    2
    3
    4
    2
  24. Which ion is important in causing actual cardiac contraction?

    calcium
    potassium
    sodium
    nitrogen
    calcium
  25. For the action potential curve, which phase represents repolarization?

    1
    2
    3
    4
    3
  26. For the action potential curve, which phase represents the resting state of the heart?

    1
    2
    3
    4
    4
  27. For the action potential curve, the period of time where a cardiac cell will not accept a stimulus no matter how strong the stimulus, is called?

    relative refractory
    absolute refractory
    pulse repetition
    isovolumic
    absolute refractory
  28. For the action potential curve, the period of time where the cardiac cell can be stimulated but only be a very strong stimulus, is called:

    relative refractory
    absolute refractory
    pulse repetition
    isovolumic
    relative refractory
  29. Which of the following statements concerning the relationship between mechanical and electrical cardicac events is true?

    electrical follows mechanical
    mechanical precedes electrical
    electrical precedes mechanical
    electrical and mechanical occurs simultaneously
    electrical precedes mechanical
  30. According to the EKG, actual ventricular contraction coincides with the:

    P wave
    QRS complex
    ST segment
    T wave
    ST segment
  31. Which of the following states that the greater the stretch of the cardiac muscle cell, the greater the force of contraction:

    Bernoulli
    Doppler
    Frank-Starling
    Bernheim
    Frank-Starling
  32. The Frank-Starling law may also be referred to as the:

    length-tension relationship
    force-velocity relationship
    interval-strength relationship
    isovolumic contraction relationship
    lenth-tensio relationship
  33. The word length is length-tension relationship refers to cardiac:

    diastole
    diastasis
    cell stretch
    systole
    cell stretch
  34. The word tension in length-tension relationship referes to cardiac:

    diastole
    diastasis
    contraction
    cell stretch
    contraction
  35. Which of the following terms is defined as the length of the cardiac cell is stretched prior to the next cardiac contraction?

    afterload
    preload
    noload
    sumload
    preload
  36. The pulmonary artery wedge pressure reflects:

    left atrial pressure
    right atrial pressure
    pulmonary artery pressure
    right ventricular pressure
    left atrial pressure
  37. The central venous pressure reflects the pressure in the:

    right atrium
    left atrium
    left ventricle
    pulmonary artery
    right atrium
  38. What effect will an increase in preload have on the force of ventricular contraction?

    decrease
    increase
    no change
    cannot be predicted
    increase
  39. All of the following will increase preload of the left heart EXCEPT:

    aortic regurgitation
    mitral regurgitation
    patent ductus arteriosus
    aortic stenosis
    aortic stenosis
  40. All of the following condition will increase right heart pressure EXCEPT:

    tricuspid regurgitation
    pulmonary regurgitation
    ventricular septal defect
    atrial septal defect
    ventricular septal defect
  41. According to Starling's law of the heart, significant mitral regurgitation initially will have which effect of left ventricular performance?

    enhance
    decrease
    varies
    cannot be predicted
    enhance
  42. Which of the following referes to the load production that the myocardium must produce during ventricular systole?

    force
    velocity
    preload 
    systole
    force
  43. Which of the following terms referes to the rate of myocardial fiber shortening?

    force
    velocity
    preload 
    systole
    velocity
  44. Force and velocity are

    porpotional
    directly related
    inverserly related
    unrelated
    inverserly related
  45. With an increase in force, the velocity of fiber shortening will:

    increase
    decrease
    varies
    cannot be predicted
    decrease
  46. With a decrease in force, the velocty of fiber shortening will:

    increase
    decrease
    remain unchanged
    cannot be predicted
    increase
  47. Which of the following terms refers to the resistance a ventricle faces during ejection?

    afterload
    velocity
    diastole
    systole
    afterload
  48. What effect will an increase in afterload have on myocardial force?

    increase
    decrease
    no change
    cannot be predicted
    increase
  49. What effect will an increse in afterload have on myocardial fiber shortening velocity?

    increase
    decrease
    no change
    cannot be predicted
    decrease
  50. What effect will an increase of afterload have on cardiac performance?

    increase
    decrease
    no change
    undetermined
    decrease
  51. Which of the following statements is true concerning valvular aortic stenois?

    increase in ventricular force, velocity and afterload
    decrease in ventricular force, velocity and afterload
    increase in ventricular force, decrease in velocity and an increase in afterload
    decrease in ventricular force, increase in velocity and in increase in afterload
    increase in ventricular force, decrease in velocity and an increase in afterload
  52. The time between each heart beat is called:

    interval
    strength
    systole
    diastole
    interval
  53. In general, as the interval between each heart beat increases the strength of ventricular contraction:

    increases
    decreases
    varies
    cannot be predicted
    increases
  54. The systolic contraction following a premature ventricular contraction with a compensatory pause will be:

    increased 
    decreased 
    unchanged
    cannot be predicted
    increased
  55. The phenonmenon where there is an incrase in systolic contraction following a premature ventricular contraction with a compensatory pause is called:

    pressure half-time
    interval-strength
    systole
    diastole
    interval-strength
  56. According to the interval-strength relationship, the peak velocity and peak pressure gradient post premature ventricular contraction with a compensatory pause will be:

    increased
    decreased
    unchanged
    cannot be predicted
    increased
  57. According to the interval-strength relationship, the strength of ventricular contraction in a patient with sinus bradycardia will be:

    increased
    decreased
    unchanged
    cannot be predicted
    increased
  58. The heart valves open and close due to the change in:

    volume
    pressure
    blood motion
    heart motion
    pressure
  59. The mitral valve closes when:

    left atrial pressure exceeds left ventricular pressure
    left ventricular systolic pressure exceeds left atrial pressure
    left ventricular systolic pressure exceeds aortic pressure
    aortic diastolic paressure exceeds left ventricular diastolic pressure
    left ventricular systolic pressure exceeds left atrial pressure 
  60. The mitral valve opens when:

    left atrial pressures exceeds left ventricular pressure
    left ventricular diastolic pressure exceeds left arial pressure
    left ventricular systolic pressure exceeds aortic systolic pressure
    aortic systolic pressure exceeds left ventricular systolic pressure
    left atrial pressures exceeds left ventricular pressure
  61. The tricuspid valve closes when:

    right atrial pressure exceeds right ventricular pressure
    right ventricular systolic pressure exceeds right atrial pressure
    right ventricular diastolic pressure exceeds pulmonary artery diastolic pressure
    systolic pulmonary artery pressure exceeds right ventricular systolic pressure
    right ventricular systolic pressure exceeds right atrial pressure
  62. The tricuspid valve opens when:

    right atrial pressure exceeds right ventricular pressure
    right ventricular diastolic pressure exceeds right atrial pressure
    right ventricular systolic pressure exceeds pulmonary artery pressure
    systolic pulmonary artery pressure exceeds right ventricular systolic pressure
    right atrial pressure exceeds right ventricular pressure
  63. As compared to the mitral valve, the tricuspid valve normally opens:

    before
    at the same time
    after
    varies
    before
  64. As compared to the mitral valve, the tricuspid valve normally closes:

    before
    at the same time
    after
    varies
    after
  65. The aortic valve opens when:

    left atrial pressure exceeds left ventricular pressure
    left ventricular systolic pressure exceeds left atrial pressure
    left ventricular systolic pressure exceeds aortic pressure
    aortic systolic pressure exceeds left ventricular systolic pressure
    left ventricular systolic pressure exceeds aortic pressure
  66. The aortic valve closes when:

    left atrial pressure exceeds left ventricular systolic pressure
    left ventricular systolic pressure exceeds left atrial pressure
    left ventricular systolic pressure exceeds aortic diastolic pressure
    aortic pressure exceeds left ventricular systolic pressure
    aortic pressure exceeds left ventricular systolic pressure
  67. The pulmonary valve opens when:

    right atrial pressure exceeds right ventricular pressure
    right ventricular pressure exceeds right artial pressure
    right ventricular systolic pressure exceeds pulmonary artery pressure
    pulmonary artery systolic pressure exceeds right ventricular pressure 
    right ventricular systolic pressure exceeds pulmonary artery pressure
  68. The pulmonary valve closes when:

    right atrial pressure exceeds right ventricular pressure
    right ventricular pressure exceeds right artial pressure
    right ventricular systolic pressure exceeds systolic pulmonary artery pressure
    systolic pulmonary artery pressure exceeds right ventricular systolic pressure 
    systolic pulmonary artery pressure exceeds right ventricular systolic pressure
  69. As compared to the arotic valve, the pulmonary valve normally opens:

    before
    at the same time
    varies
    after
    before
  70. As compared to the arotic valve, the pulmonary valve normally closes:

    before
    at the same time
    varies
    after
    after
  71. Which of the following begins with the end of the EKG T wave and ends with the onset of the QRS complex?

    ventricular diastole
    atrial systole
    ventricular systole
    isovolumic relaxation
    ventricular diastole
  72. Which of the following are true statements concerning the cardiac valves during ventricular diastole?

    atrioventricular valves are open, semilunar valves are closed
    atrioventricular valves are closed, semilunar valves are open
    atrioventricular valves are open, semilunar valves are open 
    atrioventricular valves are closed, semilunar valves are closed
    atrioventricular valves are open, semilunar valves are closed
  73. All of the following are considered components of ventricular diastole EXCEPT:

    rapid early filling
    diastasis
    atrial systole
    isovolumic contraction
    isovolumic contraction
  74. Atrial systole is considered a part of :

    early diastolic filling
    diastasis
    mid-ventricular diastole
    late ventricular diastole
    late ventricular diastole
  75. What % does atrial systole normally contribute to ventricular diastolic filling?

    10%
    30%
    70%
    90%
    30%
  76. What % does rapid, early diastolic filling contribute to ventricular diastolic filling?

    10%
    30%
    70%
    90%
    70%
  77. The period of time between atrioventricular valve closure and semilunar valve opening is called:

    rapid, early diastolic filling
    diastasis
    atrial systole
    isovolumic contraction
    isovolumic contraction
  78. Which of the following statements is true concerning isovolumic contraction?

    atrioventricular valves are open, semilunar valves are closed
    atrioventricular valves are closed, semiluar valves are open
    atrioventricular valves are open, semilunar valves are open
    atrioventricular valves are closed, semilunar valves are closed
    atrioventricular valves are closed, semilunar valves are closed
  79. Which of the following statements is true concerning the cardiac valves during ventricular systole?

    atrioventricular valves are open, semilunar valves are closed
    atrioventricular valves are closed, semiluar valves are open
    atrioventricular valves are open, semilunar valves are open
    atrioventricular valves are closed, semilunar valves are closed
    atrioventricular valves are closed, semiluar valves are open
  80. During isovolumic contaction, the ventricular pressure is _______ and the ventricular volume is _________.

    increased, decreased
    increased, increased
    increased, no change
    varies, varies
    increased, no change
  81. Which component of the EKG tracing represents ventricular systole?

    P wave
    QRS complex to T wave
    T wave to QRS complex
    T wave to onset of P wave
    QRS complex to T wave
  82. The period of time between semilunar valve closure and atrioventricular valve opening is:

    atrial systole
    ventricular diastole
    ventricular diastasis
    isovolumic relaxation
    isovolumic relaxation
  83. Which of the following statements is true concerning isovolumic relaxation?

    venticular pressure and volume are increasing
    ventricular pressure and volume are decreasing
    ventricular pressure is increasing, ventricular volume is unchanged
    ventricular pressure is decreasing, ventricular volume is unchanged
    ventricular pressure is decreasing, ventricular volume is unchanged
  84. All of the following are considered a part of the pulmonary circulation EXCEPT:

    vena cava
    right ventricle
    pulmonary artery and branches
    pulmonary capillaries
    vena cava
  85. All of the following are considered components of the systemic circulation EXCEPT:

    pulmonary veins
    left ventricle
    aorta
    cerebral veins
    pulmonary veins
  86. All of the following are true statements comparing the systemic circulation to the pulmonary circulation EXCEPT:

    higher pressure
    higher resistance
    higher O2 content
    higher carbon dioxide content
    higher carbon dioxide content
  87. All of the following are true statements comparing the systemic circulation ot the pulmonary circulation EXCEPT:

    higher overall volume
    thicker vessel walls
    blood travels a great distance
    higher stroke volume
    higher stroke volume
  88. The left ventricle stroke volume as compared to the right ventricular stroke volume is:

    10% greater
    10% less
    equal to
    cannot be predicted
    equal to
  89. Assuming normal intracardiac pressures, all of the following statements are true concerning blood flow during ventricular systole EXCEPT blood travels from the:

    left ventricle to aorta
    right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
    vena cava to the right atrium
    left atrium to the pulmonary veins
    left atrium to the pulmonary veins
  90. When early ventricular systolic pressure exceeds atrial pressures the atrioventricular valves will:

    open
    close
    be unaffected
    cannot be predicted
    close
  91. When early ventricular systolic pressure exceeds atrial pressures the semilunar valves will:

    open
    close
    be unaffected
    cannot be predicted
    open
  92. When early ventricular diastolic pressure falls below atrial pressures the semilunar valves will:

    open
    close
    be unaffected
    cannot be predicted
    close
  93. When ventricular pressure falls below atrial pressures the atrioventricular valves will:

    open
    close
    be unaffected
    cannot be predicted
    open
  94. Atrioventricular valve regurgitation will increase the atrial wave called the:

    a
    c
    x
    v
    v
  95. Atrial fibrillation will cause which of the following atrial waves to be absent?

    a
    c
    x
    v
    a
  96. Atrioventricular valve stenosis will lead to an increase in the mitral valve wave called the:

    a wave
    c wave
    x wave
    v wave
    a wave
  97. Which of the following cardiac diseases is associated with steep atrial x and y descents?

    mitral regurgitation
    tricuspid stenosis
    constrictive pericarditis
    semilunar valve stenosis
    constrictive pericarditis
  98. All of the following will directly increase ventricular systolic pressure EXCEPT:

    aortic stenosis
    mitral stenois
    systemic hypertension
    pulmonary hypertension
    mitral stenosis
  99. All of the following cardiac diseases will lead to an increase in left ventricular end diastolic pressure EXCEPT:

    congestive heart failure
    constrictive pericarditis
    tricuspid stenosis
    diastolic dysfunction
    tricuspid stenosis
  100. All of the following may increase pulmonary artery pressures EXCEPT:

    artial septal defect
    coronary artery defect
    mitral stenosis
    tricuspid regurgitation
    tricuspid regurgitation
  101. The right heart oxygen saturtations normally are equal to approximately:

    25%
    50%
    75%
    95%
    75%
  102. Which of the following will normally have the lowest oxygen saturation level?

    inferior vena cava
    superior vena cava
    right atrium
    pulmonary vein
  103. The normal oxygen saturation level for the left heart is:

    25%
    50%
    75%
    95%
    95%
  104. Which of the following normally has the lowest oxygen saturation level?

    vena cava
    coronary sinus
    pulmonary veins
    aorta
    coronary sinus
  105. Which of the following normally has the highes oxygen saturation level?

    aorta
    left atrium
    left ventricle
    pulmonary veins
    pulmonary veins
  106. The two normal hear sounds are:

    S1, S2
    S3, S4
    loud S1, opening snap
    ejection click, friction rub
    S1, S2
  107. S1 is caused by:

    closure of the atrioventricular valves
    opening of the atrioventricualr valves
    closure of the semilunar valves
    opening of the semilunar valves
    closure of the atrioventricular valves
  108. S2 is caused by:

    closure of the atrioventricular valves
    opening of the atrioventricualr valves
    closure of the semilunar valves
    opening of the semilunar valves
    closure of the semilunar valves
  109. The major component of the S1 heart sound is closure of the:

    aortic valve
    mitral valve
    tricuspid valve
    pulmoniv valve
    mitral valve
  110. S1 occurs when:

    ventricular pressure exceeds arterial pressure
    ventircular pressure exceeds atrial pressure
    arterial pressure exceeds ventricular pressure
     ventricular pressure exceeds arterial pressure
    ventircular pressure exceeds atrial pressure
  111. According to the EKG, S1 coincides with the:

    A wave
    QRS complex
    T wave
    u wave
    QRS complex
  112. S2 occurs when:

    ventricular pressure falls below arterial pressure
    ventircular pressure falls below atrial pressure
    atrial pressure exceeds ventricular pressure 
    arterial pressure exceeds ventricular pressure 
    ventricular pressure falls below arterial pressure
  113. In relation to the EKG, S2 occurs at the end of the :

    A wave
    QRS complex
    T wave
    u wave
    T wave
  114. Compared to the aortic valve, the pulmonary valve normally closes:

    before
    after
    simultaneous
    varies
    after
  115. Which of the following organs has as its primary function to provide for the metabolic demand of the body?

    lungs
    heart
    brain
    kidneys
    heart
  116. All of the following are component parts of the circulation EXCEPT:

    arterioles
    capillaries
    venules
    vasa vasorum
    vasa vasorum
  117. Which of the following arteries conduct blood from the left ventricle to the peripheral arteries?

    aorta
    capillaries
    arterioles
    vasa vasorum
    aorta
  118. Which of the following arteries conducts blood from the aorts to the various organs of the body?

    aorta
    peripheral arteries
    arterioles
    capillaries
    peripheral arteries
  119. Which of the following arteries act as control valve through which blood is metered into the capillaries?

    aorta
    peripheral arteries
    arterioles
    capillaries
    arterioles
  120. Which of the following provide for the exchange of oxygenm nutrients, carbon dioxide and waste?

    aorta
    peripheral arteries
    arterioles
    capillaries
    capillaries
  121. Which of the following vessels collect deoxygenated blood from the capillaries?

    veins
    venules
    vasa vasorum
    vena cava
    venules
  122. Which of the following vessels conducts deoxygenated blood from the peripheral tissues to the heart?

    veins
    venules
    vasa vasorum
    vena cava
    veins
  123. The inner layer of a vessel wall is the tunica:

    adventitia
    media
    intima
    vasa vasorum
    intima
  124. The middle, thickest layer of a vessel wall is the tunica:

    adventitia
    media
    intima
    vasa vasorum
    media
  125. The outer layer of a vessel wall is called the tunica:

    adventitia
    media
    intima
    vasa vasorum
    adventitia
  126. Which of the following provides oxygenated blood and nutrients to blood vessel walls?

    tunica adventitia
    tunica media
    tunica intima
    vasa vasorum
    vasa vasorum
  127. All of the following may affect cardiac performance EXCEPT:

    preload
    afterload
    contractility
    blood velocity
    blood velocity
  128. The amount of ventricular diastolic filling is called:

    preload
    afterload
    contractility
    heart rate
    preload
  129. The resistance a ventricle encounters during ventricular systole is called:

    preload
    afterload
    contractility
    heart rate
    afterload
  130. The inherent property of the ventricle to contract is called:

    preload
    afterload
    contractility
    heart rate
    contractility
  131. The amount of preload may be measured clinically by:

    atrial diastole
    ventricular end-diastolic pressure
    arterial end-systolic volume
    measuring myocardial cell length
    ventricular end-diastolic pressure
  132. According to the Frank-Starling law, an increase in preload may have which effect on cardiac performance?

    increase
    decrease
    no change
    cannot be predicted
    increase
  133. What effect will an increase in afterload have on cardiac performance?

    increase
    decrease
    no change
    cannot be predicted
    decrease
  134. All of the following will increse afterload EXCEPT:

    semilunar valve stenosis
    anemia
    pulmonary hypertension
    systemic hypertension
    anemia
  135. Which of the following will direclty affect myocardial contractility?

    mitral stenosis
    myocardial infarction
    cor tiatriatum
    tricuspid stenosis
    myocardial infarction
  136. According to the Frank-Starling law of the heart, a decrese in heart rate may have which affect on cardiac performance?

    increase
    no change
    decrease
    cannot be predicted
    increase
  137. The amount of ventricular diastolic filling is called:

    preload
    afterload
    contractility
    heart rate
    preload
  138. Which of the following will enchance cardiac cell excitability, pacemaker firing rate, conduction speed and contractility?

    parasympathetic nervous system
    sympathetic nervous system
    autonomic nervous system
    preload
    sysmpathetic nervous system
  139. Which of the following will decrease cardiac cell excitability, pacemaker firing rate, conduction speed and contractility?

    parasympathetic nervous system
    sympathetic nervous system
    autonomic nervous system
    preload
    parasympathetic nervous system
  140. The term bathomotropic refers to:

    excitability
    pacemaker firing rate
    rate of conduction
    contractility
    excitability
  141. The term chornotopic refers to:

    excitability
    pacemaker firing rate
    rate of conduction
    contractility
    pacemaker firing rate
  142. The term dromotropic refers to:

    excitability
    pacemaker firing rate
    rate of conduction
    contractility
    rate of conduction
  143. The term inotropic refers to:

    excitability
    pacemaker firing rate
    rate of conduction
    contractility
    contractility
  144. What effect will supine to standing have on venous return and ventricular volume?

    increase 
    no change 
    decrease
    cannot be determined
    decrease
  145. What effect will standing to supine have on venous return and ventricular stroke volume?

    increase 
    no change 
    decrease
    cannot be determined
    increase
  146. Which effect will standing to squatting have on venous return and ventricular stroke volume:

    increase 
    no change 
    decrease
    cannot be determined
    increase
  147. What effect will the strain phase of the Valsalve maneuver have on venous return and ventricular stroke volume?

    increase 
    no change 
    decrease
    cannot be determined
    decrease
  148. What effect will inspiration have on venous return and ventricular stroke volume?

    increase 
    no change 
    decrease
    cannot be determined
    increase
  149. What effect will inspiration have on the time interval between aortic valve closure and pulmonic valve closure:

    increase 
    no change 
    decrease
    cannot be determined
    increase
  150. What effect will expiration have on venous return and ventricular stroke volume?

    increase
    no change 
    decrease
    cannot be determined
    decrease
  151. Supine to standing will increase the intensity of all murmurs EXCEPT:

    aortic regurgitation
    mitral regurgitation
    hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
    valvular arotic stenosis
    hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
  152. All of the following murmurs will increase in intensity with prompt squatting EXCEPT:

    aortic regurgitation
    mitral regurgitation
    hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
    valvular arotic stenosis
    hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
  153. Which of the following murmurs will increase in intensity with the Valsalva maneuver?

    aortic regurgitation
    mitral regurgitation
    hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
    valvular arotic stenosis
    hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
  154. Standing to supine will increase the intensity of all of the following murmurs EXCEPT:

    valvular aortic stenosis
    valvular pulmonic stenosis
    hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
    congenital semilunar valve stenosis
    hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
  155. Which of the following has the same physiologic effect as standing to supine?

    inspiration
    isometric handgrip
    passive leg raising
    Valvalva maneuver
    passive leg raising
  156. The isometric handgrip will increase all of the following EXCEPT:

    respirations
    peripheral vascular resistance
    blood pressure
    heart rate
    respirations
  157. Concerning the isometric handgrip, which of the following in incorrectly matched?

    mitral regurgitation, increased intensity
    arotic regurgitation, increased intensity
    valvular aortic stenosis, decreased intensity
    valvular pulmonic stenosis, increased intensity
    valvular pulmonic stenosis, increased intensity
  158. The inhalation of amyl nitrite will increase all of the following murmurs except:

    valvular aortic stenosis
    valvular aortic sclerosis
    hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
    ventricular septal defect
    ventricular septal defect
  159. Amyl nitrite inhalation may elicit or enhance:

    mitral valve prolapse
    ventricular septal defect
    aortic regurgitation
    mitral regurgitation
    mitral valve prolapse
  160. All of the following will increase in intensity with inspiration EXCEPT:

    tricuspid regurgitation
    mitral regurgitation
    valvular pulmonic stenosis
    right heart S3
    mitral regurgitation
  161. All of the following mumurs will increase in intensity with expiration EXCEPT:

    mitral regurgitation
    valvular arotic stenosis
    aortic regurgitation
    pulmonary regurgitation
    pulmonary regurgitation
  162. All of the following murmurs will decrease in intesity with expiration EXCEPT:

    mitral regurgitation
    valvular pulmonic stenosis
    pulmonary regurgitation
    tricuspid regurgitation
    mitral regurgitation
  163. Coronary artery blood flow occurs predominantly during:

    atrial systole
    ventricular diastole
    ventricular systole
    isovolumic contraction
    ventricular diastole
  164. Significant coronary artery disease is present when the percent decrease in coronary artery diameter is at least?

    30%
    50%
    70%
    90%
    70%
  165. Which of the following pathologies would most likely affect coronary artery circulation:

    mitral stenosis
    tricuspid stenosis
    aortic stenosis
    tricuspid regurgitation
    aortic stenosis
  166. An increase in left ventricular diastolic pressure may have which effect on coronary circulation?

    increase
    no change
    decrease 
    cannot be predicted
    decrease
  167. An increase in heart rate will have which effect on coronary circulation?

    increase
    no change
    decrease 
    cannot be predicted
    decrease
  168. The establishment of collateral circulation will have which effect on coronary circulation?

    increase
    no change
    decrease 
    cannot be predicted
    increase
  169. The two distinct fractions of blood are plasma and:

    red blood cells
    white blood cells
    platelets
    formed elements
    formed elements
  170. All of the following are a component of the formed elements of blood EXCEPT:

    red blood cells
    white blood cells
    platelets
    plasma
    plasma
  171. Red blood cells are also referred to as:

    plasma
    erythrocytes
    leukocytes
    thrombocytes
    erythrocytes
  172. White blood cells are also referred to as:

    plasma
    erythorocytes
    leukocytes
    thrombocytes
    leukocytes
  173. Platelets are also referred to as:

    plasma
    erythorocytes
    leukocytes
    thrombocytes
    thrombocytes
  174. The fluid that carries the formed elements of blood is called:

    plasma
    erythorocytes
    leukocytes
    platelets
    plasma
  175. The % of red blood cells present is called:

    anemia
    plasmacrit
    hematocrit
    polycthemia
    hemotocrit
  176. The % of plasma present is:

    leukopenia
    plasmacrit
    hematocrit
    polycthemia
    plasmacrit
  177. An increase in the number of red blood cells is:

    anemia
    leukopenia
    hematocrit
    polycthemia
    polycthemia
  178. A decrease in the number of red blood cells is:

    anemia
    plasmacrit
    hematocrit
    polycthemia
    anemia
  179. An increase in the number of while blood cells is:

    anemia
    plasmacrit
    leukopenia
    leukocytosis
    leukocytosis
  180. A decrease in the number of white blood cells is:

    anemia
    plasmacrit
    leukopenia
    leukocytosis
    leukopenia

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