Respiratory Pharmacology 2

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
16620
Filename:
Respiratory Pharmacology 2
Updated:
2010-04-28 12:44:40
Tags:
asthma
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Description:
Asthma 2
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  1. What are the 2 classes of drugs used to treat asthma?
    • Bronchodilators
    • Anti-inflammatories
  2. What are the 4 types of bronchodilators?
    • 1. Beta 2 agonists
    • 2. Xanthine drugs
    • 3. Cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonists
    • 4.Muscarinic antagonists
  3. What are the 2 types of anti-inflammatories used to treat asthma?
    • 1. Corticosteroids
    • 2. Cromoglicate
  4. Beta 2 agonist description
    • Potent Bronchodilators
    • Relax SM directly
    • Most effective drugs for acute asthma
    • Can be Short or Long acting
  5. Short acting Beta 2 agonist?
    • Salbutamol
    • Rapid onset of action
    • Taken as needed
    • Inhaled
    • Not suitable as sole therapy
  6. Long acting Beta 2 agonist?
    • Salmeterol
    • Taken as preventative
    • Inhaled
    • Not suitable for acute attacks
  7. Xanthine drugs summary
    • Administered orally or IV
    • Act directly on the SM to cause bronchodilation
    • Inhibit phosphodiesterases- altering cAMP or cGMP, causing adenosine receptor antagonism
  8. An example of a Xanthine drug?
    • Theophylline
    • Rapid onset of action
    • Symptomatic relief
    • Not suitable for sole therapy
    • Low therapeutic index
    • S/E's include GIT upset, CNS effects and dysrhthmias
  9. Cysteinyl-leukotriene antagonist summary
    • Relax SM directly to cause bronchoconstriction
    • Treats both stages of asthma attack
    • Administered orally
    • High affinity cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonism
  10. Example of cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonist?
    • Montelucast
    • Used for mild asthma, only has 1/3 of Salbutamol's effects
    • Used as add on therapy for beta 2 agonists or steroids
    • Few side effects (GIT upset)
  11. Muscarinic antagonist summary
    • Weak bronchodilators
    • Inhaled
    • Compete with ACh at M3 receptor
    • Very few side effects
    • Used in children
  12. Example of a muscarinic antagonist?
    Ipratropium Bromide
  13. Corticosteroid Summary
    • Used for moderate and severe asthma
    • Moderate- orally. Severe- IV.
    • Bind steroid receptors and influence gene transcription to decrease cytokine production and increase beta 2 receptor production.
    • Decrease inflammatory response, bronchial reactivity and mucosal secretion.
    • Increases airway diameter.
  14. Example of Inhaled Steroid?
    • Beclomethasone
    • (Spacer)
  15. Example of systemic steroid?
    • Prednisone
    • Orally
  16. Cromoglicate summary
    • Cromoglicate
    • Used as a preventative, useless during an attack
    • Blocks bronchoconstriction but doesn't cause bronchodilation
    • Inhaled
    • Mechanism largely unknown (decreases histamine release?)

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