Ch1 - Matter & Measurement

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Ch1 - Matter & Measurement
2012-08-15 22:42:18

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  1. -definition: chemical elements
    • pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances
    • ex: Sodium, Aluminum, Bromine, etc.
  2. definition: atom

    • An atom is the smallest particle ofan element that has the chemicalproperties of the element.

    Distance across = 1.8 nanometer (1.8 x 10-9 m)
  3. An atom consists of:
    • An atom consists of:
    • • a nucleus (of protons and neutrons)
    • • electrons in space about the nucleus.
  4. definition: chemical compounds
    CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS are composed of atoms and so can be decomposed to those atoms.
  5. -definition: molecule
    A MOLECULE is the smallest unit of a compound that retains the chemical characteristics of the compound.

    Composition of molecules is given by a MOLECULAR FORMULA

    • H2O - water
    • C8H10N4O2 - caffeine
  6. definition: macroscopic
    what we can see
  7. definition: particulate
    we cannot see
  8. Matter consists of:
    Matter consists of atoms and molecules in motion. Matter has kinetic nature.
  9. List the states of matter. Define them.
    • SOLIDS — have rigid shape, fixed volume. External shape can reflect theatomic and molecular arrangement.
    • LIQUIDS — have no fixed shape and may not fill a container completely.
    • GASES — expand to fill theircontainer.–Good theoretical understanding.
  10. Melting point is what type of property?
  11. Boiling point is what type of property?
  12. What type of property is observed when dissolving a solid in a liquid to give a homogeneous mixture?
  13. What type of property is observed when dissolving a solid in a liquid to give a solution?
  14. -formula: density
    (with units)
    density = mass (g) / volume (cm2)
  15. Problem:
    A piece of copper has a mass of 57.54 g. It is 9.36 cm long, 7.23 cmwide, and 0.95 mm thick. Calculate density.
    • 9.0 g/cm3
    • -must have correct units
    • -must be only 2 sig figs
  16. Does density depend on the quantity of matter?
    No. It is an INTENSIVE property.
  17. Define intensive property. Give examples.
    Intensive properties do not depend on the quantity of matter. Examples include density and temperature.
  18. Define extensive property. Give examples.
    Extensive properties depend on the quantity of matter. Examples include mass and volume.
  19. PROBLEM: Mercury (Hg) has a densityof 13.6 g/cm3. What is the mass of 95 mLof Hg in grams? In pounds?
    • 1. Use density to calc. mass (g) fromvolume.
    • 2. Convert mass (g) to mass (lb)
    • Need to know conversion factor= 454 g / 1 lb

    Answer: 2.8lb
  20. Define chemical change.
    Chemical change or chemical reaction —transformation of one or more atoms or molecules into one or more different molecules.
  21. List the standard SI units of measurement.
    • Length - Meter, m
    • Mass - Kilogram, kg
    • Time - Seconds, s
    • Temperature - Celsius degree, oC & Kelvins, K
  22. 1 km = ____ m
    1 km = 1000 m
  23. 1 m = ____ cm
    1 m = 100 cm
  24. 1 cm = ___ mm
    1 m = 10 cm
  25. 1 nm = ___ m
    1 nanometer (nm) = 1.0 x 10-9 meter
  26. Boiling point of water in oF, oC, K.
    • 212oF
    • 100oC
    • 373K
  27. Is one K degree = to one oC degree?
  28. Freezing point of water in oF, oC, K.
    • 32oF
    • 0oC
    • 273K
  29. At 100oF, what is the temperature in oC and K?
    • 38oC
    • 311K
  30. The formula for converting oC into K is:
    T (K) = t (°C) + 273.15
  31. A computer disk is 3.5 inches on a side. What is this dimension in centimeters?
    8.9 cm
  32. 1 in = ____ cm
    1 in = 2.54 cm
  33. A computer disk is 3.5 inches square. What is area of this disk in square centimeters?
  34. A common envelope is 24.2 centimeters long and 10.5 centimeters wide. What is the areaof the envelope in square inches?
    39.4 in2
  35. A beaker in the laboratory has a volume of 250. mL. What is the volume of the beaker inliters?
    0.250 L
  36. A laboratory flask has a volume of 0.750 L. What is the volume of this flask in milliliters?
    750 mL
  37. A large orange has a mass of 253 g. What is the mass of this orange in kilograms?
    0.253 kg
  38. A piece of meat has a mass of 1.35 kg. What is the mass of this meat in pounds?
    2.97 lb
  39. A can of soft drink has a mass of 1.23 pounds. What is its mass in grams?
    558 g
  40. 1 lb = ____ g
    1 lb = 454 g
  41. The density of platinum metal is 21.4 g/cm3. If you have a piece of platinum with mass of 11.23 g, what is its volume in cubic centimeters?
    0.525 cm3
  42. The density of ethylene glycol, the principal ingredient in antifreeze, is 1.11 g/cm3. If you have 245 g of the liquid, how many cubic centimeters do you have?
    221 cm3
  43. The density of liquid mercury is 13.53 g/cm3. If you have a pound of mercury, how many milliliters do you have?
    33.6 mL
  44. Name one of the few elements that exists in the liquid state under normal conditions and give its density.
    Bromine, d = 3.10 g/cm3
  45. Bromine, one of the few elements that exists in the liquid state under normal conditions,has a density of 3.10 g/cm3. If you have 50.0 mL of bromine, how many grams do youhave?
  46. The temperature of the room is 75 °F. Approximately what is its temperature in Celsius degrees?
  47. How do you convert oC into oF?
    °F = °C x  9/5 + 32
  48. How do you convert oF into oC?
    oC = (°F  -  32)   x  5/9
  49. A temperature on a cool day in San Francisco may be 15 °C. Approximately what is this temperature in Fahrenheit degrees?
    59 °F
  50. The temperature of molten aluminum is 683 °C. What is this temperature in Kelvin?
    956 K
  51. The number of significant figures in the number 0.002354 is:
  52. The number of significant figures in the number 1.03 x 10-3 is:
  53. If you solve the expression (2.34 + 0.567 + 63.2 = ?), the answer is:
  54. If you express the number 0.000568 in scientific notation with two significant figures itwould be
    5.7 x 10-4
  55. Fourteen carat gold is a mixture of gold and other metals, with gold present to the extent of 58.3%. If you have a 14-carat gold ring with a mass of 5.63 g, the mass of gold present is:
    3.28 g
  56. Silver jewelry is a mixture of silver and copper. If an earring has a mass of 1.78 g, and it is 80.1% silver, the mass of copper in the earring is