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definition: chemical elements
examples
 pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances
 ex: Sodium, Aluminum, Bromine, etc.

definition: atom
• An atom is the smallest particle ofan element that has the chemicalproperties of the element.
Distance across = 1.8 nanometer (1.8 x 109 m)

An atom consists of:
 An atom consists of:
 • a nucleus (of protons and neutrons)
 • electrons in space about the nucleus.

definition: chemical compounds
CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS are composed of atoms and so can be decomposed to those atoms.

definition: molecule
examples
A MOLECULE is the smallest unit of a compound that retains the chemical characteristics of the compound.
Composition of molecules is given by a MOLECULAR FORMULA
 H2O  water
 C8H10N4O2  caffeine

definition: macroscopic
what we can see

definition: particulate
we cannot see

Matter consists of:
Matter consists of atoms and molecules in motion. Matter has kinetic nature.

List the states of matter. Define them.
 STATES OF MATTER
 SOLIDS — have rigid shape, fixed volume. External shape can reflect theatomic and molecular arrangement.
 LIQUIDS — have no fixed shape and may not fill a container completely.
 GASES — expand to fill theircontainer.–Good theoretical understanding.

Melting point is what type of property?
Physical

Boiling point is what type of property?
physical

What type of property is observed when dissolving a solid in a liquid to give a homogeneous mixture?
physical

What type of property is observed when dissolving a solid in a liquid to give a solution?
physical

formula: density
(with units)
density = mass (g) / volume (cm^{2})

Problem:
A piece of copper has a mass of 57.54 g. It is 9.36 cm long, 7.23 cmwide, and 0.95 mm thick. Calculate density.
 9.0 g/cm^{3}
 must have correct units
 must be only 2 sig figs

Does density depend on the quantity of matter?
No. It is an INTENSIVE property.

Define intensive property. Give examples.
Intensive properties do not depend on the quantity of matter. Examples include density and temperature.

Define extensive property. Give examples.
Extensive properties depend on the quantity of matter. Examples include mass and volume.

PROBLEM: Mercury (Hg) has a densityof 13.6 g/cm3. What is the mass of 95 mLof Hg in grams? In pounds?
 1. Use density to calc. mass (g) fromvolume.
 2. Convert mass (g) to mass (lb)
 Need to know conversion factor= 454 g / 1 lb
Answer: 2.8lb

Define chemical change.
Chemical change or chemical reaction —transformation of one or more atoms or molecules into one or more different molecules.

List the standard SI units of measurement.
 Length  Meter, m
 Mass  Kilogram, kg
 Time  Seconds, s
 Temperature  Celsius degree, ^{o}C & Kelvins, K

1 km = ____ m
1 km = 1000 m

1 m = ____ cm
1 m = 100 cm

1 cm = ___ mm
1 m = 10 cm

1 nm = ___ m
1 nanometer (nm) = 1.0 x 10^{9} meter

Boiling point of water in ^{o}F, ^{o}C, K.

Is one K degree = to one ^{o}C degree?
Yes.

Freezing point of water in ^{o}F, ^{o}C, K.

At 100^{o}F, what is the temperature in ^{o}C and K?

The formula for converting ^{o}C into K is:
T (K) = t (°C) + 273.15

A computer disk is 3.5 inches on a side. What is this dimension in centimeters?
8.9 cm

1 in = ____ cm
1 in = 2.54 cm

A computer disk is 3.5 inches square. What is area of this disk in square centimeters?

A common envelope is 24.2 centimeters long and 10.5 centimeters wide. What is the areaof the envelope in square inches?
39.4 in^{2}

A beaker in the laboratory has a volume of 250. mL. What is the volume of the beaker inliters?
0.250 L

A laboratory flask has a volume of 0.750 L. What is the volume of this flask in milliliters?
750 mL

A large orange has a mass of 253 g. What is the mass of this orange in kilograms?
0.253 kg

A piece of meat has a mass of 1.35 kg. What is the mass of this meat in pounds?
2.97 lb

A can of soft drink has a mass of 1.23 pounds. What is its mass in grams?
558 g

1 lb = ____ g
1 lb = 454 g

The density of platinum metal is 21.4 g/cm3. If you have a piece of platinum with mass of 11.23 g, what is its volume in cubic centimeters?
0.525 cm3

The density of ethylene glycol, the principal ingredient in antifreeze, is 1.11 g/cm3. If you have 245 g of the liquid, how many cubic centimeters do you have?
221 cm^{3}

The density of liquid mercury is 13.53 g/cm3. If you have a pound of mercury, how many milliliters do you have?
33.6 mL

Name one of the few elements that exists in the liquid state under normal conditions and give its density.
Bromine, d = 3.10 g/cm^{3}

Bromine, one of the few elements that exists in the liquid state under normal conditions,has a density of 3.10 g/cm3. If you have 50.0 mL of bromine, how many grams do youhave?
155g

The temperature of the room is 75 °F. Approximately what is its temperature in Celsius degrees?
24^{o}C

How do you convert ^{o}C into ^{o}F?
°F = °C x 9/5 + 32

How do you convert ^{o}F into ^{o}C?
^{o}C = (°F  32) x 5/9

A temperature on a cool day in San Francisco may be 15 °C. Approximately what is this temperature in Fahrenheit degrees?
59 °F

The temperature of molten aluminum is 683 °C. What is this temperature in Kelvin?
956 K

The number of significant figures in the number 0.002354 is:
4

The number of significant figures in the number 1.03 x 10^{3} is:
3

If you solve the expression (2.34 + 0.567 + 63.2 = ?), the answer is:
66.1

If you express the number 0.000568 in scientific notation with two significant figures itwould be
5.7 x 10^{4}

Fourteen carat gold is a mixture of gold and other metals, with gold present to the extent of 58.3%. If you have a 14carat gold ring with a mass of 5.63 g, the mass of gold present is:
3.28 g

Silver jewelry is a mixture of silver and copper. If an earring has a mass of 1.78 g, and it is 80.1% silver, the mass of copper in the earring is
9.35g

