Endocrine

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Author:
jzm4mdd
ID:
166280
Filename:
Endocrine
Updated:
2012-08-26 16:21:46
Tags:
paeds endocrine
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Description:
paeds endocrine
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  1. Primary hyperparathyroidism
    1. Adenomas 2. Hyperplasia 3. Carcinoma
  2. Hyperparathyroidism
    • Polydipsia
    • Polyuria
    • Constipation
    • Muscle weakness
    • Weight loss
    • Skeletal manifestations.
  3. Consequences of hyponatraemia
    • >120mmol/L - often asymptomatic
    • 110-120 - headache, agitation, disorientation, lethargy, N&V
    • <110 - convulsion, coma, pseudobulbar palsy (though may be tolerated if slow onset)
  4. Hyponatraemia
    Euvolaemia=  syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH), high water intake, hypothyroidism.
  5. Hyponatraemia
    Hypovolaemia= diarrhoea, vomiting, diuretics, renal tubular dysfunction
  6. Hyponatraemia
    Hypervolaemia= cirrhosis, heart failure
  7. Pseudohypoparathyroidism
    • Hypocalcaemia with hyperphosphataemia
    • Elevated PTH due to resistance to parathormone (PTH).
    • This is due to mutation of the PTH receptor.
    • There are associated phenotypic signs including short stature, low IQ and shortened fourth and fifth metacarpals.
  8. Cretinism
    • Cretinism is characterised by
    • retarded bone age
    • short stature
    • protruding tongue
    • broad flat nose
    • widely set eyes
    • sparse hair
    • dry skin
    • protuberant abdomen
    • umbilical hernia.

    The incidence of cretinism is about 1:5000

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