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2012-08-16 18:33:11
nutrition assessment dietary clinical data

CH 14: Assessment: Dietary and Clinical Data
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  1. 24-hour recall
    a method of dietary assessment in which an individual is asked to remember everything eaten during the previous 24 hours
  2. ageusia
    loss of sense of taste
  3. anosmia
    loss of sense of smell
  4. anthropometry
    the science of measuring the size, weight, and proportions of the human body
  5. bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)
    a precise body composition analysis technique that uses a small electrical current to estimate total body water, fat-free mass, fat mass, and body cell mass
  6. dietary history
    a detailed dietary record; may include a 24-hour recall, food frequency questionnaire, food diary, and other information such as weight history, previous diet changes, use of supplements, and food intolerances
  7. dietary intake data
    data about food consumption, including information on appetite, eating patterns, and estimations of typical nutrient intake
  8. dysgeusia
    diminished or distorted sense of taste
  9. food diary
    a written record of the amounts of all foods and liquids consumed during a set time, usually 3 to 7 days; often includes information on eating time, place, and situation
  10. food frequency questionnaire
    a method of dietary assessment in which the data collected relate to how often and in what amount foods are consumed (e.g., servings per week, month, or year)
  11. height-for-age curve
    assessment of stature and change in stature for a child at a specific age and over time, compared with a norm
  12. nutrient intake analysis (NIA)
    a process by which food, beverage, and supplement intake is evaluated for nutrient content over a specified period of time
  13. nutrition assessment
    the science of determining nutrition status by analyzing an individual's medical, dietary, and social history; anthropometric data; biochemical data; clinical data; and drug-nutrient interactions
  14. nutrition screening
    a process used to identify nutritional problems and risk factors

    The purpose of a nutrition screen is to quickly identify individuals who are at a nutritional risk and determine whether a more detailed assessment is warranted.
  15. nutrition status
    a measurement of the extent to which an individual's physiologic need for nutrients is being met

    The balance between nutrient intake and nutrient requirements is the nutrition status.
  16. waist circumference
    the distance around the smallest girth below the rib cage and above the umbilicus (belly button); provides a risk prediction for obesity-related disease; used in patients with a body mass index of up to 35
  17. weight-for-age curve
    assessment of weight and change in weight for a child at a specific age and over time, compared with a norm
  18. weight-for-length curve
    a standard for evaluating the growth of children that gives the percentile rankings for weight according to specfic lengths or heights but disregarding age
  19. Nutrition screening and assessment are integral parts of the nutrition care process (NCP).  What are the four phases of NCP?
    1. Assessment of nutrition status

    2. Identification of nutritional diagnoses

    • 3. Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) interventions
    • such as dietary change, nutritional supplements, education, counseling, or referrals

    4. Monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of the interventions
  20. IBW
    Ideal Body Weight
  21. UBW
    Usual Body Weight
  22. perinatal
    per·i·na·tal [ pèrrə náyt'l ]   

    • around time of childbirth: 
    • relating to or occurring during the period around childbirth, specifically from around week 28 of pregnancy to around one month after the birth
  23. BMI
    Body Mass Index

    BMI = Weight / (height in inches X height in inches) X 703
  24. EGA
    Estimated Gestational Age

    Gestational age relates to the age of an embryo or fetus (or newborn infant).
  25. MUST
    Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool

    Current weight using BMI, unintentional weight loss using specific cutoff points, and acute disease effect on nutrition intake for greater than 5 days.  Once the scores are added, the overall risk of malnutrition can be determined using three categories: 0 = low risk, 1 = medium risk; and 2 or more = high risk.
  26. The goals of nutrition assessment are to:
    1. Identify individuals who require aggressive nutrition support

    2.  Restore or maintain an individual's nutrition status

    3.  Identify appropriate MNT

    4.  Monitor the efficacy of these interventions
  27. Cachexia
    ca·chex·i·a   [kuh-kek-see-uh]  noun 

    Pathology: general ill health with emaciation, usually occurring in association with cancer or a chronic infectious disease.
  28. Nutrition Status Assessment: History
    Medical: chief complaint, illnesses, family history, psychosocial data, review of problems from the patient's perspective.  Alcohol and drug use, weight gain/loss, mental status/changes, prescription and over-the-counter drugs, physical disabilities...

    Social: socioeconomic status, ability to purchase food, living or eating alone, physical/mental handicaps, smoking, drugs, alcohol, confusion....

    Medication: drug therapy can be altered by specific foods and the timing of food and meal consumption.  This includes over-the-counter and herbal therapies...

    Dietry: collect data on denture issues, changes in taste and smell, anything that may affect/change the normal intake of food as well as a dietary history to obtain dietary intake information...