Neuro final 1st half

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Neuro final 1st half
2012-08-20 16:16:18
Neuromuscular foundations motor control

Neuromuscular foundations of motor control final 1st half
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  1. What do General Somatic efferent fibers do?
    Carry motor impulses away from CNS to skeletal muscle and stimulates them to contract
  2. What do general visceral efferent fibers do?
    Carry motor impulses away from CNS to various smooth muscles and glands associated with internal organs, causing certain muscles to contract or glands to secrete
  3. What do General Somatic afferent fibers do?
    Carry sensory impulses toward the CNS from receptors in the skin and skeletal muscles
  4. What do General Visceral afferent fibers do?
    Carry sensory impulses toward the CNS from blood vessels and internal organs
  5. What do special somatic efferent fibers do?
    Carry motor impulses away from the brain to the muscles used in chewing, swallowing, speaking and forming facial expressions
  6. What do special somatic afferent fibers do?
    Carry sensory impulses toward the brain from the receptors of sight, hearing and equilibrium
  7. What do special visceral afferent fibers do?
    Carry sensory impulses toward the brain from the olfactory and taste receptors
  8. Describe chemoreceptors
    • Respond to changes in the concentration of chemical substances
    • Smell & Taste
  9. Describe nociceptors
    • Respond to tissue damage
    • Triggering factors include exposure to excess mechanical, electrical, thermal or chemical energy
  10. Describe thermoreceptors
    Sensitive to temperature changes
  11. Describe mechanoreceptors, identify the 3 types & their functions
    • Sense mechanical forces by detecting changes that deform the receptor
    • Proprioceptors – changes in tensions of muscles & tendons
    • Baroreceptors (pressoreceptors) – blood vessels detect changes in BP
    • Stretch Receptors – lungs sense degree of inflation
  12. Describe photoreceptors
    • Found in eyes
    • Respond to light energy of sufficient intensity
  13. Describe exteroceptors
    • Associated with changes at the body surface
    • (Touch, Temperature, Pressure & Pain)
    • type of sensory nerve ending
  14. Describe interoceptors (visceroreceptors)
    • Associated with changes in viscera
    • Type of sensory nerve ending
  15. Describe proprioceptors
    • Associated with changes in muscles and tendons and in body position
    • type of sensory nerve ending
  16. Describe free nerve endings
    • Consist of terminal branches of sensory nerve fibers lying freely in the innervated tissue
    • Appear to mediate thermal, painful and itching sensations
    • Unencapsulated exteroreceptor
  17. Describe Meissner's (Tactile) Corpuscles
    • Abundant in the hairless portions of the skin (lips, fingertips, palms, soles, nipples and external genital organs)
    • Great sensitivity to touch and are thought to be responsible for fine or discriminative touch
    • Encapsulated exteroreceptor
  18. Describe Pacinian corpuscles
    • Common in deeper dermal tissue of the hands, feet, penis, clitoris, urethra, breasts and also in tendons and ligaments
    • Detect heavier pressure and stretch and also vibration in tissues
    • Encapsulated exteroreceptor
  19. Describe muscle spindles (a type of proprioceptor)
    • Respond to muscle stretch (stretch receptor)
    • Located in skeletal muscles near their junctions with tendons
    • Detect changes in muscle length
    • Important in the control of muscle tone, movement & kinesthesia
  20. Describe golgi tendon organs (type of proprioceptor)
    • Found in tendons close to their attachments to muscle
    • Detect changes in muscle tension
    • Helps maintain posture and protects muscle attachments from being pulled away from theirinsertions by excessive tension
  21. Define sensory adaptation
    Ability to ignore unimportant stimuli
  22. Define neuromuscular junction
    Site where an axon and muscle fiber meet
  23. Define recruitment
    Increasing muscle tension by increasing the number of muscle fibers contracting
  24. Define twitch (fasciculation)
    Rapid contraction and relaxation of a muscle
  25. Define staircase effect (treppe)
    The gradual increase in muscular contraction following rapidly repeated stimulation
  26. Define tetanus
    Smooth, sustained contraction of skeletal muscle resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses
  27. Define sustained contraction
    A continuous firing of action potentials
  28. Define radial nerve compression
    Compression in the spiral groove (post.upper half) of the humerus
  29. Define Chronic entrapment of the Ulnar nerve
    Entrapment of the ulnar nerve at the elbow
  30. Compression of what nerve results in carpal tunnel syndrome
    Median nerve
  31. Describe the sequence of nerve involvement which takes place in a reflex arc
    • Receptor
    • Sensory (afferent) neuron
    • Interneuron (Link)
    • Motor (efferent) neuron
    • Effector
  32. Describe the monosynaptic reflex
    • Reflex that uses only two neurons (1 synapse)
    • Sensory (afferent) neuron communicating directly with a motor (efferent) neuron
    • Ex:  Knee-jerk reflex, stretch reflex or deep tendon reflex
  33. Describe the polysynaptic reflex
    • Reflex mediated by more than two neurons (many synapses)
    • More complete reflex arc
    • Ex: Withdrawal reflex, flexor reflex, crossed extensor reflex
  34. What does the CNS consist of?
    Brain and spinal cord
  35. What does the PNS consist of?
    Spinal nerves and Cranial nerves
  36. What are the functions of the nervous system
    sensory, motor & integrative
  37. Define neuron
    Structural & functional unit of the nervous system
  38. Define Neuroglial
    Supporting or accessory cell in the nervous system
  39. What does the axon do?
    Carries impulses away from cell body
  40. What does the dendrite do?
    Carries impulses toward cell body
  41. Describe somatic nervous system
    Voluntary & supplies skeletal muscle
  42. Describe autonomic nervous system
    Visceral, involuntary & supplies smooth & cardiac muscle & glands
  43. Myelin is produced by what?
    • CNS:  oligodendrocytes
    • PNS:  Schwann cells
  44. Describe astrocyte
    Connects neurons to blood vessels
  45. Describe microglia
    phagocytic cell
  46. Describe oligodendrocyte
    • produces myelin in CNS
    • one cell can myelinate many axons
  47. Describe Ependyma
    Ciliated cell
  48. Define polarized
    membrane is electrically charged
  49. Define hyperpolarized
    Membrane potential is more negative
  50. Define depolarized
    membrane potential is less negative
  51. Describe electrical conduction
    Lets nerve impulses travel rapidly within a neuron and Gives the nervous system therapid-response capability
  52. Describe chemical transmission
    Takes place in the synapses between neurons, enabling nerve impulses to be transmitted from one neuron to the next and gives the brain the flexibility that is required for learning
  53. Describe EPSP (excitatory post-synaptic potential)
    • Depolarizes membrane of postsynaptic neuron
    • Action potential of postsynaptic neuron becomes more likely
  54. Describe IPSP (Inhibitory PostSynaptic Potential)
    • Hyperpolarizes membrane of postsynaptic neuron
    • Action potential of postsynaptic neuron becomes less likely
  55. Describe Synaptic transmission
    • Neurotransmitters are released when the impulse reaches the synaptic knob
    • When the action potential passes over the surface of a synaptic knob, the contents of the vesicles (neurotransmitters) are released in response to the presence of calcium ions
  56. Describe the longitudinal fissure
    Separates right & left cerebral hemispheres
  57. Describe the Transverse Fissure
    Seperates cerebrum from cerebellum
  58. Define Gyri
    bumps or convolutions of brain
  59. Define Sulci
    grooves between gyri
  60. Describe the corpus collosum
    Connects the cerebral hemispheres at the midline
  61. What does the brainstem consist of
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla
  62. What is the sensory function of the parietal lobe
    interprets sensation on the skin
  63. What is the sensory function of the temporal lobe
    interprets hearing
  64. What is the sensory function of the occipital lobe?
    interprets vision
  65. What is the motor function of the frontal lobe?
    -of Broca's area?
    -of the Frontal eye field?
    • Control voluntary muscles
    • controls muscles involved in speech
    • control voluntary movement of eyes and eyelids
  66. What are the functions of the associated areas of the:
    -Frontal lobe
    -Temporal lobe
    -Parietal lobe
    -Occipital lobe
    • Concentrating, planning on complex problem solving
    • Understanding speech & Choosing words to express thought
    • Interprets complex sensory experiences & Stores memories of visual scenes, music & complex patterns
    • Analyze and combine visual images with other sensory experiences 
  67. What does the Epithalamus consist of, and what are the functions of these structures?
    • Pineal Gland – most notable component
    • – Endocrine gland
    • – Synthesizes melatonin
    •        -Controls the “sleep-wake” cycle (circadian rhythm)
    •        -Helps regulate the onset of puberty
    • Habenular nuclei
    • -Connected with the Limbic system
  68. What are the functions of the Thalamus?
    • Main sensory relay center for nervous system
    • Gateway for sensory impulses heading to cerebral cortex
    • Receives all sensory impulses (except smell)
  69. What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
    • Maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activities
    • Links nervous system to endocrine system
  70. What are the functions of the spinal cord?
    • Center of Spinal Reflexes
    • Conduit for nerve impulses to and from the brain
  71. Where are the cell bodies for sensory pathways located?
    Cell bodies are in the dorsal root ganglion
  72. Where are the cell bodies for motor pathways located?
    Cell bodies are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord