MNT1_CH15

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Author:
PicOlio
ID:
166378
Filename:
MNT1_CH15
Updated:
2012-08-17 15:50:02
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assessment laboratory data
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Description:
CH 15 Assessment: Laboratory Data
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  1. albumin
    the most abundant (55% to 65% of total) plasma protein; a negative acute-phase respondent with a long half-life (t1/2 = 21 days); maintains plasma oncotic pressure and acts as a transport protein

    (oncotic pulls water into the circulatory system - also related to swelling)
  2. anemia of chronic and inflammatory diseases (ACD)
    a condition of impaired iron use in which functional iron (i.e., hemoglobin) is low, but tissue iron (i.e., ferritin) is normal or high; due to raised cytokine levels, shortened erythrocyte survival, and impaired bone marrow response.
  3. basic metabolic panel (BMP)
    eight blood tests used for screening
  4. complete blood count (CBC)
    analysis and description of the red blood cells
  5. comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)
    14 blood tests, including all the tests in the basic metabolic panel used for screening
  6. C-reactive protein (CRP)
    acute-phase protein that increases in infectious diseases, inflammatory disorders, malignancy, and tissue trauma
  7. creatinine
    a chemical breakdown product of creatine phosphate; used as a marker of renal function and muscle mass
  8. differential count
    part of white blood cell count that enumerates each of the specific classes of leukocytes
  9. ferritin
    a protein that sequesters iron in a form readily activated for transport; found primarily in the liver and other iron storage sites; plasma ferritin is proportional to intracellular ferritin and useful in assessing iron status.
  10. functional assay
    the appraisal of nutrient pool size by measurement of the activity of a biochemical or physiologic activity dependent on a specific nutrient
  11. hematocrit
    the measure of the percentage of red blood cells in total blood volume
  12. hemoglobin
    measure of the total amount of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells, in the peripheral blood
  13. high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subtypes
    five types of HDL (HDL2a, HDL2b, HDL2c, HDL3a, and HDL3b) that provide different levels of protection against cardiovascular disease
  14. high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)
    a special CRP test to detect slight elevations of CRP, which are associated with increased risk for occlusive cardiovascular diseases, peripheral vascular disease, and end-stage kidney disease.

    (to occlude is to block something)
  15. homocysteine
    an amino acid that is an intermediate in the synthesis of methionine and the methyl group donor, S-adenosylmethionine; because the S-adenosylmethionine cycle requires vitamin B12 and folate, deficiencies in these vitamins are associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent risk factor for occlusive cardiovascular disease
  16. lp(a) 'lipoprotein little a'
    a highly atherogenic low-density lipoprotein fraction
  17. macrocytic anemia
    a condition marked by a mean red cell volume of less than 80 femtoliters (fl); commonly associated with iron deficiency
  18. negative acute-phase respondents
    a group of plasma proteins, including albumin and prealbumin (transthyretin), the concentrations of which decrease during inflammatory conditions (the acute-phase reaction)
  19. nutrition-specific laboratory data
    tests on body fluids (e.g., plasma, serum, saliva), tissues (e.g., whole blood, cells, hair, nails), and waste (e.g., urine, feces, sweat) that are performed by controlled physical, chemical, biochemical, molecular, diagnostic, or microscopic examination primarily to provide information about nutrient pool status
  20. oxidative stress
    the balance between the formation of toxic free radical oxidation products and the reactions that convert these compounds to benign end products
  21. pattern A LDL
    low-density lipoprotein subclass that is buoyant and less dense (per mg cholesterol) and is the least atherogenic of the LDL subclasses
  22. pattern B LDL
    low-density lipoprotein subclass that is small and dense (per milligram of cholesterol) and is the most atherogenic of the LDL subclasses
  23. positive acute-phase respondents
    a group of plasma proteins, including C-reactive protein and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid), the concentrations of which increase during inflammatory states (the acute-phase reaction)
  24. prealbumin (PAB)
    a negative acute-phase respondent plasma protein that is also called transthyretin (TTHY); binds thyroxine and retinol-binding protein and is commonly used to monitor protein-energy status; because of its short half-life (t1/2 = 2 days), it repidly responds to improving protein energy status
  25. reactive oxidation species (ROS)
    free radical species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radicals (O2-), and hydroxyl radicals (OH) that are formed during metabolic processes or metabolism of xenobiotic compounds
  26. retinol-binding protein (RBP)
    a negative acute-phase respondent plasma protein with a half-life (t1/2 = 12 hours) the concentration of which correlates with protein-energy status; binds and transports retinol
  27. static assay
    appraisal of nutrient pool size by direct measurement of the nutrient in a biologic fluid, tissue, or waste
  28. total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)
    a measurement of the potential for plasma to bind ferric ion (FE[III]+)
  29. transferrin
    the plasma protein that transports iron from one organ to another; a negative acute-phase respondent that has a medium half-life (t1/2 = 8 days) and is responsive to protein-energy status
  30. urinalysis
    physical and/or chemical examination of the urine to screen for infections and diseases that result in the appearance of abnormal metabolites in the urine

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