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Around the time of conception, generally defined as the month before and the month after conception.
(premenstrual = the period of time preceding menstrual bleeding; syndrome = a constellation of symptoms)
A condition occurring among women of reproductive age that includes a group of physical, psychological, and behavioral symptoms with onset in the luteal phase and subsiding with menstrual bleeding. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of PMS.
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)
A protein that binds with the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen. Also called steroid hormone binding globulin, because testosterone and estrogen are produced from cholesterol and are thus considered to be steroid hormones. These hormones are inactive when bound to SHBG, but are available for use when needed. Low levels of SHBG are related to increased availability of testosterone and estrogen in the body.
A condition in which cells "resist" the action of insulin in facilitating the passage of glucose into cells.
Low-grade inflammation that lasts weeks, months, or years. Inflammation is the first response of the body's immune system to infection or irritation. Inflammation triggers the release of biologically active substances that promote oxidation and other potentially harmful reactions in the body.
A constellation of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and other disorders. It is characterized by insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, high blood pressure and triglyceride levels, low levels of HDL cholesterol, and impaired glucose tolerance. Also called Syndrome X and insulin-resistance syndrome.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
(polycysts = many cysts; i.e., abnormal sacs with membranous linings) A condition in females characterized by insulin resistance, high blood insulin and testosterone levels, obesity, polycystic ovaries, menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, infertility, hirsutism (excess body hair), and acne.
Cessation of menstruation related to changes in hypothalamic signals that maintain the secretion of hormones required for ovulation. Changes in hypothalamic signals appear to be triggered by an energy deficit. Also called functional amenorrhea and weight-related amenorrhea.
(anorexia = poor appetite; nervosa = mental disorder) A disorder characterized by extreme underweight, malnutrition, amenorrhea, low bone density, irrational fear of weight gain, restricted food intake, hyperactivity, and disurbances in body image.
(bulimia = ox hunger) A disorder characterized by repeated bouts of uncontrolled, rapid ingestion of large quantities of food (binge eating) followed by self-induced vomiting, laxative or diuretic use, fasting, or vigorous excercise in order to prevent weight gain. Binge eating is often followed by feelings of disgust and guilt. Menstrual cycle abnormalities may accompany this disorder.
Exposures that produce malformations in embryos or fetuses.
A structural, functional, or metabolic abnormality present at birth. Also called congenital anomalies. These may be caused by environmental or genetic factors, or by a combination of the two. Structural abnormalities are generally referred to as congenital malformations, and metabolic abnormalities as inborn errors of metabolism.
Type I Diabetes
A disease characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting from destruction of the insulin-producing cells of the pancrease. This type of diabetes was called juvenile-onset diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes in the past, and its official names is type I diabetes mellitus.
Type 2 Diabetes
A disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to the body's inability to use insulin normally, or to produce enough insulin. This type of diabetes was called adult-onset diabetes and non- insulin-dependent diabetes in the past, and its official name is type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Glycemic Index (GI)
A measure of the extent to which blood glucose levels are raised by a specific amount of carbohydrate-containing food compared to the same amount of glucose or white bread.
Diseases that result from a failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts as a "self". The organism attempts to defend itself from the perceived foreign substance through actions of its immune system. These actions can damage molecules, tissues, and organs. Type I diabetes, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis are examples of autoimmune diseases.
A condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for the diagnosis of diabetes. It is characterized by impaired glucose tolerance, or fasting blood glucose levels between 110 to 126 mg/dL.
An inherited error in phenylalanine metabolism most commonly caused by a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase, which converts the essential amino acid phenylalanine to the nonessential amino acid tyrosine. Also called hyperphenylalaninemia.
An autoimmune disease that causes malabsorption due to an inherited sensitivity to the gliadin portion of gluten in wheat, rye, and barley. It is often responsible for iron, folate, zinc, and other deficiencies. Also called celiac sprue and nontropical sprue.
A food labeling term that indicates a product does not contain any species of wheat, rye, barley, or their hydrids, or ingredients that contain these grains, or 20 or more parts per million (ppm) gluten (about 6 mg per serving). (FDA proposed definition)
Chemicals released by the immune system that attack its own molecules, cells, and tissues.
A virus that is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children. Diarrhea caused by rotavirus generally lasts 2 days, and recovery is full in otherwise healthy children. The rotavirus is generally spread from an infected person's stools to food.
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