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2012-08-17 22:30:41
nutrition during pregnancy

Nutrition During Pregnancy
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  1. Liveborn Infant
    A liveborn infant is the outcome of delivery when a completely expelled or extracted fetus breathes, or shows any sign of life such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the cord has been cut or the placenta is still attached.
  2. Placenta
    A disk-shaped organ or nutrient and gas interchange between mother and fetus.  At term, the placenta weighs about 15% of the weight of the fetus.
  3. Edema
    Swelling (usually of the legs and feet, but can also extend throughout the body) due to an accumulation of extracellular fluid
  4. Steroid Hormones
    Hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, and testosterone produced primarily from cholesterol.
  5. Glucogenic Amino Acids
    Amino acids such as alanine and glutamate that can be converted to glucose.
  6. Ketones
    Metabolic by-products of the breakdown of fatty acids in energy formation.  B-hydroxybutyris acid, acetoacetic acid, and acetone are the major ketones, or "ketone bodies"
  7. Amniotic Fluid
    The fluid contained in the amniotic sac that surrounds the fetus in the uterus.
  8. Growth
    Increase in an organism's size through cell multiplication (hyperplasia) and enlargement of cell size (hypertrophy).
  9. Development
    Progression of the physical and mental capabilities of an organism through growth and differentiation of organs and tissues, and integration of functions.
  10. Differentiation
    Cellular acquisition of one or more characteristics or functions different from that of the original cells.
  11. Critical Periods
    Preprogrammed time periods during embryonic and fetal development when specific cells, organs, and tissues are formed and integrated, or functional levels established.  Also called sensitive periods.
  12. Small for Gestational Age (SGA)
    Newborn weight is ≤ 10th percential for gestational age.  Also called small for date (SFD)
  13. Disproportionately Small for Gestational Age (dSGA)
    Newborn weight is ≤ 10th percentile of weight for gestational age; length and head circumference are normal.  Also called asymmetrical SGA.
  14. Proportionately Small for Gestational Age (pSGA)
    Newborn weight, length, and head circumference are ≤ 10th percentile for gestational age.  Also called symmetrical SGA.
  15. Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA)
    Weight, length, and head circumference are between the 10th and 90th percentiles for gestrational age.
  16. Large for Gestational Age (LGA)
    Weight for gestational age exceeds the 90th percentile for gestational age.  Also defined as birth weight greater than 4500 g (≥ 10lb) and referred to as excessively sized for gestational age, or macrosomic.
  17. Shoulder Dystocia
    Blockage or difficulty of delivery due to obstruction of the birth canal by the infant's shoulders.
  18. Cerebral Palsy
    A group of disorders characterized by impaired muscle activity and coordination present at birth or developed during early childhood.
  19. Fetal-Origins Hypothesis
    The theory that exposures to adverse nutritional and other conditions during critical or sensitive periods of growth and development can permanently affect body structures and functions.  Such changes may predispose individuals to cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other disorders later in life.  Also called metabolic programming and developmental origins of disease.
  20. Developmental Plasticity
    The concept that development can be modified by particular environmental conditions experienced by a fetus or infant.
  21. Epigenetics
    (epi = over; above) Biological mechanisms that change gene function without changing the structure of DNA.  Epigenetic mechanisms are affected by environmental factors.
  22. Gravida
    Number of pregnancies a woman has experienced.
  23. Parity
    The number of previous deliveries experienced by a women; nulliparous = no previous deliveries, primiparous = one previous delivery, multiparous = two previous deliveries.  women who have delivered infants are considered to be "parous".
  24. Eicosanoids
    Molecules synthesized from essential fatty acids.  They exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation and immunity, and act as messengers in the central nervous system.
  25. Preeclampsia
    A pregnancy-specific condition that usually occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy (but may occur earlier).  It is characterized by increased blood pressure and protein in the urine and is associated with decreased blood flow to maternal organs and through the placenta.
  26. Iron Deficiency
    A condition marked by depleted iron stores.  It is characterized by weakness, fatigue, short attention span, poor appetite, increased susceptibility to infection, and irritability.
  27. Iron-Deficiency Anemia
    A condition often marked by low hemoglobin level it is characterized by the signs of iron deficiency plus paleness, exhaustion, and a rapid heart rate.
  28. Hypothyroidism
    A condition characterized by growth impairment and mental retardation and deafness when caused by inadequate maternal intake of iodine during pregnancy.  Used to be called cretinism.
  29. Bioactive Food Components
    Constituents in foods or dietary supplements other than those needed to meet basic human nutritional needs that are responsible for changes in health status.
  30. Pica
    An eating disorder characterized by the compulsion to eat substances that are not food.
  31. Geophagia
    Compulsive consumption of clay or dirt.
  32. Pagophagia
    Compulsive consumption of ice or freezer frost.
  33. Amylophagia
    Compulsive consumption of laundry starch or cornstarch.
  34. L. Monocytogenes, or Listeria
    A foodborne bacterial infection that can lead to preterm delivery and stillbirth in pregnant women.  Listeria infection is commonly associated with the ingestion of soft cheeses, unpasteurized milk, ready-to-eat deli meats, and hot dogs.
  35. T. Gondii, or Toxoplasmosis
    A parasitic infection that can impair fetal brain development.  The source of the infection is often hands contaminated with soil or the contents of a cat litter box; or raw or partially cooked pork, lamb, or venison.