Physics Equations and Constants - Part 1

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Anonymous
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166432
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Physics Equations and Constants - Part 1
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2012-08-19 22:26:16
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Physics Equations Constants Part
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Physics Equations and Constants - Part 1
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  1. Compton Equation (Energy)
  2. Compton Equation (Wavelength)
  3. Capacitor
    • Q=CV
  4. Resistor
    V=IR
  5. Inductor
  6. Resistance
    • R = resistance
    •  = resistivity
    • L = length
    • A = cross-sectional area
  7. Doppler Shift
  8. T1/T2 images
    • T1 = fat bright
    • T2 = water/fluids bright
  9. Detector Dead Time Correction
    •  (non-paralyzable)
    •  (paralyzable)
  10. Exposure to Kerma
    • X
  11. Avogadro's number
    Na = 6.02x1023 atoms/mol
  12. Roentgen to C/kg
    R = 2.58x10-4 C/kg
  13. Curie to Bq
    1 Ci = 3.7x1010 Bq
  14. Kerma from attenuation coefficient
  15. Bits to Bytes
    8 bits = 1 byte
  16. Transmission, Attenuation
  17. kB, MB, GB, TB
    • kB = 210 bytes
    • MB = 220 bytes
    • GB = 230 bytes
    • TB = 240 bytes
  18. Radiation Protection Barrier Transmission
  19. Film Gamma or Average Gradient
  20. Electric Field and Voltage


  21. Special Relativity
  22. decibels
  23. Radioactive Decay, Half Life
  24. Magnification
  25. Dose Equivalent, Effective Dose
  26. Average energy of beta decay particle
    1/3 of the max energy
  27. Gyromagnetic Ratio and Larmor Frequency
    • Gyromagnetic ratio for protons (H in water): 
    • Larmor Frequency:    or   
  28. Survival Fraction (Single target, Single hit) (Multiple target, Single hit)
     (Single target)

      (Multiple Target)
  29. Ion Chamber Temperature and Pressure Correction
  30. Transient Equilibrium Activity of Daughter
    • Note: after about 4 Half-lives, the daughter is approximately in equilibrium with the parent. If branching ratio is 1, then the daughter has a slightly higher activity than the parent.
  31. Neutron beam activation saturation activity
  32. Temperature Conversions (Celsius to Kelvin, Celsius to Fahrenheit)
    • T[K] = T[C] + 273.15
    • T[F] = 9/5 T[C] + 32
  33. MeV/c2 to amu conversion
    1amu = 931.5 MeV/c2
  34. Sensitivity and Specificity; ROC Curve
    • Sensitivity = TP/(TP+FN)
    • Specificity = TN/(TN+FP)
    • ROC Curve is Sensitivity vs (1-Specificity)
  35. Hounsfield Unit
  36. Exposure from Gamma Constant


  37. Fetal Dose Effects
    • During pre-implantation (1st week), the most likely result is death
    • During organogenesis (2-8 weeks), the most likely result is growth development and malformations
    • During early fetal stage (8-15 weeks), the most likely result is mental retardation
    • During mid to late fetal stage (15+ weeks), the most likely result is leukemia and other cancers
    • Threshold dose is likely around 10 cGy – 50 cGy
  38. What process competes with gamma ray emission?
    Internal conversion
  39. Optical Density Equation
  40. What's the phase difference between the two surfaces of a piezoelectric crystal used in US?
    • Quarter-wave matching 
    • 90-degree phase difference
  41. Snell's Law
  42. Speed of sound in fat and soft tissue?
    • In fat: 1450 m/s
    • In soft tissue: 1540 m/s
  43. Specific heat equation
    • Specific heat transfer: 
    • Fusion (change in state of matter): 
  44. Effective half life
  45. What standard controls patient demography and billing info?
    HL7 (Health Level 7)
  46. What regulation controls patient anonymization?
    HIPAA
  47. What is the lower limit for a fringe field for MRI?
    5 Gauss = 0.5 mT
  48. An emission has only neutrino and characteristic x-ray, what's the decay scheme?
    Electron Capture
  49. If a gamma emission from a metastable state to stable state is forbidden, what's the alternative decay?
    Internal Conversion
  50. Focal Spot Blur
    Blur = spotsize*OID/SOD
  51. Secular equilibrium ratio of daughter to parent
    F = 1-(1/2)n where n is number of half lives
  52. Relation between HVL and TVL?
    TVL = 3.32 HVL
  53. Standard deviation values of Gaussian Distribution
    • +/-1 sigma = 68%
    • +/-2 sigma = 95%
    • +/-3 sigma = 99.7%
  54. Electron mass and charge
    • Mass = 9.1E-31 kg = 0.511MeV/c2
    • Charge = 1.6E-19 C
  55. According to NCRP 116 and ICRP report, what is the fatal risk of cancer by radiation for whole population for low dose rate and low LET
    5% per Sv of whole body
  56. According to FDA, the collimator or jaw of linac is required to be how many HVL layer?
    0.5% = 0.005 ~ 8HVL
  57. An atom that decays by releasing a positron has an excess of .. (neutrons, protons, electrons)
    protons
  58. Radiation Dose Limits
    • Occupational: 50 mSv/year
    • Extremities: 500 mSv/year
    • Eyes: 150 mSv/year
    • Fetus: 5 mSv/year

    Population: 1mSv/year
  59. Planck's Constant
    h = 6.62E-34 m2kg/s

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