Unit 1 (Structure of the Atom & EM/particulate radiation)

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Unit 1 (Structure of the Atom & EM/particulate radiation)
2012-09-04 01:49:37

Unit 1 - Chapter 2: Structure of the Atom and Chapter 3: Electromagnetic and Particulate Radiation
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  1. Concerning the atom, what is the production of x-ray dependent on?
    the interaction of electrons and matter at the anode
  2. What two interactions occur at the atomic level that concern us in the field of x-ray radiation?
    • the interaction of an x-ray photon and the human body
    • the interaction of an attenuated x-ray beam and the receptor
  3. Early Greek theory of the atom included:
    the four elements: earth, air, fire, water
  4. What did Democritus contribute to atomic theory and when?
    • Thought matter could not be divided indefinetly, leading to the idea of atoms in a void (also, the four elements)
    • 460 BC to about 370 BC
  5. What did Dalton contribute to atomic theory and when?
    • all elements are composed of tiny, indivisible, and indestructible particles called atoms
    • the atoms are unique to each element in their size and mass
    • compounds are formed by molecules which are formed by fixed ratios of each type of constituent (part of a whole) atom, resulting in predicable mass.
    • a chemical reaction is a rearrangement of the atom.
    • discovered scientific evidence recognizing that elements combined to form compounds.
    • early 1800s
  6. Describe the chain that composes the difference makeups of the structure of matter:
    • Atoms come together to form molecules.
    • Molecules combine to form elements.
    • When one or more elements join chemically, they form compounds.
    • Substances can be simple (one element) or complex
    • (multiple elements)
    • Two or more substances combined make mixtures. 
  7. substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances:
  8. substances formed when two or more elements are chemically joined:
  9. The smallest particles of matter:
  10. An electically neutral group of at least two atoms held together by a covalent bond.
  11. What distinguishes a molecule from an ion?
    their electrical charges
  12. What makes the difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?
    • covalent bonds involves the sharing of electrons.
    • ionic bonds involves the transfer of electrons.
  13. What did J.J. Thomson contribute to atomic theory and when?
    • discovery of the electron.
    • discovered isotopes.
    • discovered electron spectrometer
    • around 1906 (when he received the Nobel Peace Prize in Physics)
  14. List the differences between:
    isotope, isotone, isobar, isomer
    • isotoPe = the Proton stays the same.
    • isotoNe = the Neutron stays the same.
    • isobAr = the Atomic mass number (A#) stays the same.
    • isomEr = everything stays the same.
  15. What does this image represent?
    the "plum pudding" model, describing an atom as a big ball of electrons thrown together as a random, structureless mass, as theorized by Thomson.
  16. Why was Thomson's discoveries about neon isotopes important to our field?
    the light emission found by Thomson helped lead Roentgen to the discovery of x-rays.
  17. What did Rutherford contribute to atomic theory?
    • scattering equipment suggested there were holes in the atom because some alpha particles passed through without interaction while others had varying angles of deflection (due to the interaction with the atom)
    • this contradicted the plum pudding model by Thomson (Rutherford's teacher).
  18. What did Bohr contribute to atomic theory?
    he put forth the modern theory of the atom.
  19. List the components of the atom:
    • nucleus - a small, dense center containing the nucleons, protons, and neutrons
    • electrons that orbit the nucleus in defined energy bands or shells
  20. Describe the electrical charges of the parts of the atom:
    • each proton has one unit of positive charge
    • each electron has one unit of negative charge
    • neutrons have no charge
  21. Describe the energy of the shells of the atom:
    the K shell has the greatest binding energy. The binding energy decreases with each subsequent shell.
  22. How can the maximum number of electrons that fit onto each shell be determined?
    • with the formula: 2n2
    • the "n" represents the shell number, with the K shell always being shell number one (L=2, M=3, and so on)

    example: for the K shell: 2x12= 2x1=2. K shell can hold two electrons.
  23. a way of classifying elements based on the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of their constituent atoms:
    • the isos
    • (the 2nd to last letter in the name of each can be used as a prompt to tell what stays the same)
  24. What makes up the atomic mass (A#)?
    • the mass of the parts of the nucleus (protons, neutrons).
    • does NOT include the mass of the electrons
    • mass of a proton is 1836 times greater and mass of a neutron is 1838 times greater than mass of an electron.
  25. What makes up the atomic number (Z#)?
    • the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
    • routinely, on the periodic table, the Z# is on top, and the A# is underneath
    • on the periodic table, higher Z#s grow toward the bottom right, and lower Z#s shrink toward the top left.
  26. What happens when the Z# of an element changes? Give an example.
    • the element changes.
    • ex. in radioactive decay, Radium (Z#88) emits an alpha particle and decays to Radon (Z#86)
  27. What happens when the A# of an element changes? Give an example.
    • Changing the number of neutrons or electrons does NOT change the element.
    • ex. changing the number of neutrons creates an isotope
    • ex. changing the number of electrons creates an ion which could create ionization
  28. Describe the two ways in which atoms bond to form molecules:
    • ionic bond: when one atom gives up an electron and becomes positively charged and another atom takes on that electron, acquiring a negative charge (it is the difference in charge that bond the two atoms together)
    • covalent bond: when two atoms share electrons that then orbit both nuclei, completing the outermost shell of each
  29. Describe two aspects of the basic organization of the periodic table of elements:
    • horizontal periods indicate elements that have the same number of electron shells
    • vertical groups have the same number of electrons in the outer (valence) shell
  30. studies the relationships between matter and energy:
  31. has mass and occupies space:
  32. the force used to do work:
  33. What is the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy?
  34. Who is credited with the foundation of modern physics?
    • Schrödinger
    • (quantum physics or wave mechanics)
  35. What are protons and neutrons made up of:
  36. What does the M Theory do?
    • a.k.a. the String Theory
    • links quantum physics and relativity
  37. What maintains electrical stability of the atom?
    an equal number of protons and electrons
  38. What factor distinquishes an element?
    the atomic number (Z#): the number of protons contained in the nucleus
  39. What results when an xray photon interacts with an electron, ejecting it from the atom?
    ionization of the atom
  40. What unit is used to measure Electron Binding Energy (Eb)?
    electron volts (eV)
  41. What is an electron volt?
    the energy of one electron when accelerated by one volt
  42. What is the chemical combining characteristic that describes how an atom will bond with another atom?
    the atom's valence
  43. A +1 atom is also called a(n) __________ and it __________ an electron.
    • cation
    • gives up
  44. A -1 atom is also called a(n) __________ and it __________ an electron.
    • anion
    • gains
  45. What is the Octet Rule?
    an atom never has more than eight electrons in its outer shell.
  46. An atom with eight electrons in its outer shell is:
    chemically stable (inert)
  47. What is the physicist's definition of work?
    • work = force x distance
    • (a force acting  upon an object over a distance expends energy)
  48. The action of physical movement:
    mechanical energy
  49. Name the two types of mechanincal energy:
    • potential
    • kinetic
  50. A body converts _________ energy from food into ___________ energy or movement.
    • chemical
    • mechanical
  51. A battery converts __________ energy into __________ energy.
    • chemical
    • electrical
  52. What is another name for heat energy?
    thermal energy
  53. Results from the movement of molecules:
    heat (thermal) energy
  54. What is thermal energy measured by?
  55. A toaster converts ___________ energy into ___________ energy.
    • electrical
    • heat (thermal)
  56. Results from the movement of electrons in a conductor:
    electrical energy
  57. A light bulb converts _________ energy into _________.
    • electric
    • light
  58. Name the best known conductor, plus two more we discussed:
    • gold (best)
    • aluminum
    • copper
  59. Name three non-conductors we discussed:
    • rubber
    • wood
    • glass
  60. Obtained by breaking the bonds between the particles within a nucleus:
    nuclear energy
  61. When creating nuclear energy, what is a common by-product?
    a lot of heat
  62. Willhelm Roentgen won the Nobel Peace Prize for physics in what year and for what reason?
    • 1901
    • identified the use of barium platinocyanide
  63. T/F: X-ray is a penetrating and visible form of EM radiation.
  64. T/F: X-rays are negatively charged.
    False: electrically neutral
  65. T/F: X-rays can be polyenergetic or heterogenous energies.
  66. T/F: X-rays release heat when passing through matter.
  67. T/F: X-rays travel in waves.
    False: they travel in straight lines.
  68. T/F: Gamma rays travel at the speed of light, but X-rays do not.
    False: x-rays travel at the speed of light, as do all electromagnetic waves.
  69. T/F: X-rays can ionize matter.
  70. T/F: X-rays do not affect photographic film.
    False. they do.
  71. T/F: X-rays produce polar and magnetic changes in matter through ionization and excitation.
    False: produce CHEMICAL and BIOLOGICAL changes
  72. T/F: X-rays produce secondary and scatter radiation.
  73. T/F: X-rays cause opulence in certain crystals.
    False: cause FLUORESCENCE
  74. T/F: X-rays cannot be focused by a lens.
  75. It is the nature of electromagnetic energy that all forms travel at the speed of light and vary only in (3):
    • energy
    • wavelength
    • frequency
  76. In thinking of the rainbow (Roy G. Biv), which end is the lower frequency and which end is the higher frequency?
    • Violet = higher frequency
    • Red = lower frequency
  77. List the order of waveforms from lowest frequency to highest frequency:
    • radiowaves
    • microwaves
    • infrared
    • visible light
    • ultraviolet light
    • x-ray 
    • gamma ray
  78. As you increase the wavelength on the electromagnetic spectrum, the energy will increase or decrease?
  79. As the wavelength on the electromagnectic spectrum decreases, does the frequency increase or decrease?
  80. Give the exact speed of light:
    • 186,000 m/s
    • (also shown as 3x10m/s)
  81. A form of energy that originates from the atom after interaction takes place:
    electromagnetic radiation
  82. T/F: Electromagnetic radiation requires a medium through which to travel:
    False: it does not. it can even travel in a vacuum.
  83. What type of energy is sound?
    mechanical energy
  84. Offers a relationship mathematically between energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation:
    Planck's Constant (4.15x10-15eV)
  85. Give the formula for calculating energy or frequency when using Planck's constant:
    • E=hf
    • e is energy
    • h is Planck's constant (4.15x10-15eV)
    • f is frequency
  86. Who theorized electromagnetic radiation existed as "packets of energy called photons"?
    Max Planck
  87. According to Max Planck: as energy increases, frequency will:
  88. As you decrease the frequency on the electromagnetic spectrum, the energy will increase or decrease?
  89. Why does electomagnetic energy not require a medium through which to travel?
    it vibrates itself with electricity and magnetism.
  90. Induction allows electricity to induce a ____________. Give an example.
    • magnetic field
    • ex. the stator in the X-ray tube
  91. What are the two ways electromagnetic radiation can be exhibited depending on its energy and/or environment?
    • particle
    • wave
  92. What is the characteristic of electromagnetic radiation that results in either a wave or a particle form?
    wave particle duality
  93. In wave particle duality, is the intensity greater or lesser where the waves cross/join?
  94. Name the velocity of electromagnetic radiation:
    • approximately186,000 m/s
    • (velocity can be described as the speed)
  95. The maximum height of a wave:
  96. Peak of one wave to peak of next wave:
    wavelength (m)
  97. Number of waves that pass a given point per second:
    frequency (Hz)
  98. Give the formula to find frequency and/or wavelength of electromagnetic radiation:
    • c = 3x108 m/s (speed of light)
    • ƛ = wavelength
    • f = frequency
  99. Higher energy radiation tends to exhibit more ________ characteristics and lower energy radiation tends to exhibit more ________ characteristics in dealing with wave-particle duality.
    • particle (ex. gamma acts more particulate)
    • wave (ex. radio acts more wavelike)
  100. high energy x-ray and gamma exhibit wave characteristics of:
  101. X-ray and Gamma ray can _____________ and ____________ according to the inverse square law, both being particulate characteristics.
    • burn skin
    • intensity varies
  102. X-ray and Gamma can both __________ matter which can cause biological damage.
  103. Where is the generalized area that MRI falls on the electromagnetic spectrum:
    between radio and microwave
  104. the basic principle of opertation of MRI hinges on the fact that the nuclei of the __________ atoms are __________.
    • hydrogen
    • magnetic
  105. What happens to the hydrogen atoms of human tissue when placed in a strong magnetic field, such as an MRI?
    • the nuclei will absorb and reemit radiowaves of a particular frequency
    • (the receptor receives varying frequencies which represent varying types of tissue being imaged)
  106. What happens to the body when placed in the magnetic field of an MRI?
    it becomes polarized.
  107. What energy causes vibration of the atoms and molecules causing them to release excess energy as heat?
    microwave energy
  108. What energy is used when sending signals between electronic devices?
    infrared energy
  109. Is infrared energy an ionizing energy?
    no, but excessive amounts to the cornea of the eye can cause damage
  110. _________ light consists of all the colors of the visible spectrum and ___________ all the colors.
    • white
    • reflects
  111. ____________ light ________ none of the colors of the visible spectrum but ________ all of them.
    • black
    • reflects
    • absorbs
  112. __________ light would __________ all of the colors and reflect the wavelength of itself only.
    • red
    • absorb
    • (this is true of all of the other colors of the spectrum except black and white)
  113. Energy that stimulates melanin production in skin cells:
    ultraviolet light
  114. What are two physical particles originating from radioactive atoms with the ability to ionize matter, much like x-rays and gamma rays?
    alpha and beta particles
  115. Atoms with excess energy that emit particles from the nucleus to obtain stability:
  116. the process by which a radioactive element gives off excess energy and particles to regain stability:
    radioactive decay
  117. an element composed of atoms with unstable nuclei:
  118. the length of time it takes for half the remaining atoms in a quantity of a particular radioactive element to decay:
    half-life (ex. radium 226 has half-life of 1620 years)
  119. a unit of measurement of radioactive decay:
    becquerel or curie
  120. an electron emitted from an unstable nucleus:
    beta particle
  121. Which is lighter, an alpha particle or a beta particle?
    beta particle
  122. T/F Beta particles can have a positive or negative charge.
  123. Two protons combined to two neutrons:
    Alpha particles (large compared to beta particles, have a positive charge)
  124. What often happens with alpha particles when passing through air?
    • they pick up electrons attracted to their positive charge, changing them to a neutral helium
    • helium: 2 protons, 2 neutrons, 2 electrons
  125. T/F: Due to their size, Alpha particles penetrate easily.
    False. Much larger than Beta particles, do NOT penetrate easily.