Life Cycles_Ch.1

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  1. Six Key Nutrition Concepts
    1. Nutrition is the study of foods, their nutritents and other chemical constituents, and the effects of food constituents on health.

    2. Nutrition is an interdisciplinary science.

    3. Nutrition recommendations for the public change as new knowledge about nutrition and health relationships is gained.

    4. At the core of the science of nutrition are principles that represent basic truths and serve as the foundation of our understanding about nutrition.

    5. Healthy individuals require the same nutrients across the life cycle but in differing amounts. Nutrional needs can be met by a wide variety of cultural and religious food practices.

    6. Nutritional status during one stage of the life-cycle influences health status during subsequent life-cycle stages.
  2. Nutrients
    Chemical substances in foods that are used by the body for growth and health.
  3. Food Security
    Access at all times to a sufficient supply of safe, nutritous foods.
  4. Food Insecurity
    Limited or uncertain availability of safe, nutritious foods, or the ability to acquire them in socially acceptable ways.

    About 12% of U.S. households are food insecure.
  5. Calorie
    A unit of measure of the amount of energy supplied by food. Also known as the "kilocalorie" (kcal), or the "large Calorie."
  6. Ten principles of human nutrition
    1. Food is a basic need of humans

    2. Foods provide energy (calories), nutrients, and other substances needed for growth and health.

    3. Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells.

    4. Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake.

    5. Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing fluctuations in food intake.

    6. Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states, genetic factors, or combinations of these causes.

    7. Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others.

    8. Poor nutrition can influence the development of certain chronic diseases.

    9. Adequacy, variety, and balance are key characteristics of a healthy diet.

    10. Ther are not "good" or "bad" foods.
  7. Six categories of nutrients
    1. Carbohydrates

    2. Protiens

    3. Fats (Lipids)

    4. Vitamins

    5. Minderals

    6. Water
  8. Carbohydrates
    Chemical substances in foods that consist of a single sugar molecule or multiples of sugar molecules in various forms.

    Sugar and fruit, starchy vegetables, and whole grain products are good dietary sources.

    Carbohydrates provide 4 calories per gram
  9. Proteins
    Chemical substances in foods that are made up of chains of amino acids.

    Animal products and dried beans are examples of  protein sources.

    Proteins provide 4 calories per gram
  10. Fats (Lipids)
    Components of food that are soluble in fat but not in water. They are more properly referred to as "lipids." Most fats are composed of glycerol attached to three fatty acids.

    Oil, butter, sausage, and avacado are examples fo rich sources of dietary fats.

    Fats provide 9 calories per gram
  11. Vitamins
    Fourteen specific chemical substances that perform specific functions in the body. Vitamines are present in many foods and are essential components of the diet.

    Vegetables, fruits, and grains are good sources of vitamins.
  12. Minerals
    In the context of nutrition, minerals consist of 15 elements found in foods that perform particular functions in the body.

    Milk, dark, leafy, vegetables, and meat are good sources of minerals.
  13. Water
    An essential component of the diet provided by food and fluid.
  14. Essential Nutrients
    Substanes required for growth and health that cannot be produced, or produced in sufficient amounts, by the body.

    They must be obtained from the diet.
  15. Essential Amino Acids
    Amino acids that cannot be synthesized in adequate amounts by humans and therefore must be obtained from the diet.

    Also called "indispensible amino acids."

    There are 9 essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoluecine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, and Valine.
  16. Nonessential Nutrients
    Nutrients required for growth and ehalth that can be produced by the body from other components of the diet.
  17. Daily Values
    Scientifically agreed-upon standards for daily intakes of nutrients from the diet developed for use on nutrition lables.
  18. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
    The general term used for the ntirient intake standards for healthy people
  19. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
    Levels of essential nutrient intake judged to be adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons while ecreasing the risk of certain chronic disease.
  20. Adequate Intakes (AIs)
    "Tentative" RDAs. AIs are based on less conclusive scietific information than the RDAs.
  21. Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)
    • Nutrient intake values that are estimated to meet the requirements of half the healthy individuals in a gorup.
    • The EARs are used to assess adequacy of intake of population groups.
  22. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)
    Upper limits of nutrient intake compatible with health.

    The ULs do not reflect desired levels of intake. Rather, they represent toal, daily levels of nutrient intake from food, fortified foods, and supplements that should not be exceeded. 
  23. Insulin Resistance
    A condition in which cell membranes have a reduced sensitivity to insulin so that more insulin than normal is required to transport a given amount of glucose into cells.
  24. Type 2 Diabetes
    A disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to the body's inability to use insulin normally, to produce enough insulin, or both. 
  25. Glycemic Indes
    A measure of the extent to which blood glucose is raised by a 50-gram portion of a carbohydrate-containing food compared to 50 grams of glucose or white bread.
  26. Recommended Intake Level of Carbohydrates
    It is recommended that 45-65% of calories come from carbohydrates.

    Added sugar should constitute no more than 25% of total caloric intake.

    It is recommended that adult females consume between 21 and 25 grams, and males 30-38 grams of total dietary fiber daily.
  27. Amino Acids
    The "building blocks" of protein.

    Unlike carbohydrates and fats, amino acids contain nitrogen.
  28. Recommended Intake Level of Proteins
    In general, proteins should contribute 10-35% of total energy intake.
  29. Kwashiorkor
    A sever form of protein-energy malnutrition in young children. It is characterized by swelling, fatty liver, susceptibility to infection, profound apathy, and poor appetite.

    The cause of kwashiorkor is unclear.
  30. Fatty Acids
    the fat-soluble components of fats in foods
  31. Glycerol
    A component of fats that is soluble in water. It is converted to glucose in the body
  32. Essential Fatty Acids
    Components of fat that are a required part of the diet (i.e., linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids). Both contain unsaturated fatty acids.
  33. Prostaglandins
    A group of physiologically active substances derviced from the essential fatty aids. They are present in many tissues and perform such fuctions as the constriction of dialation of blood vessels and stimulation of smooth muscles and the uterus.
  34. Thromboxanes
    Biologically active substances produced in platelets that increase platelet aggregation (and therefore promote blood clotting), constrict blood vessels, and increase blood pressure.
  35. Prostacyclins
    Biologically active substances produced by blood vessel walls that inhibit platelet agregation (and therefore blood clotting), dilate blood vessels, and reduce blood pressure.
  36. Essential Fatty Acids
    There are two essential fatty acids: Linoleic acid and Alpha-Linoleic acid.
  37. Linoleic Acid
    The parent of the omega-6 fatty acid family.

    Most vegetable oils, meats, and human milk are good sources of linoleic acid.

    American diets tend to provide sufficient to excessive amounts of linoleic acid.

    One of the major derivatives of linoleic acid is arachidonic acid, which is a primary structural component of the central nervous system.
  38. Alpha-Linolenic Acid
    The parent of the omega-3 fatty acid family.

    It is present in many types of dark green vegetables, vegetable oils, and flaxseed.

    Derivatives of Alpah-Linolenic Acid include Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA).
  39. Saturated Fats
    Fats in which adjacent carbons in the fatty acid components are linked by single bonds only. (e.g., -C-C-C-C-)
  40. Unsaturated Fats
    Fats in which adjacent carbons in one or more fatty acids are linked by one or more bouble bonds. (e.g., -C-C=C-C=C-)
  41. Monounsaturated Fats
    Fats in which only one pair of adjacent carbons in one or more of its fatty acids is linked by a double bond. (e.g., -C-C=C-C-)
  42. Polyunsaturated Fats
    Fats in which more than one pair of adjacent carbons in one or more of its fatty acids are linked by two or more double bonds. (e.g., -C-C=C-C=C-)
  43. Trans Fat
    A type of unsaturated fat present in hydrogenated oils, margarine, shortenings, pastries, and some cooking oils that increase the risk of heart disease. Fats containing fatty acids in teh trans versus the more common cis form are generally referred to as trans fat.
  44. Cholesterol
    A fat-soluble, colorless, liquid primarily found in animal products.
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Life Cycles_Ch.1
2012-08-18 19:47:23
Life Cycle Nutrition

Basic Nutrition
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