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What are the components that make up the GIT on a cellular level?
- Epithelium- stops things from the environment crossing and getting into the body
- Lamina Propria- contains immune cells, fibroblasts, nerves, blood vessels
- Circular muscle- works perpendicularly with longitudinal muscle to cause peristalsis
- Longitudinal muscle- works perpendicularly with circular muscle to cause peristalsis
- Mesenteric plexus- causes pulses of muscle contraction
What are the functions of the GIT?
- 1. Food digestion
- 2. Vomiting
- 3. Fluid absorption
- 4. Immulogical functions eg oral tolerance
How is gastric acid regulated in the stomach?
- Cl- is pumped into the cell by antiport carrier
- Cell becomes negatively charged
- Cell transports the Cl- into the lumen via a symport carrier
- K+ leaves the cell along with the Cl-
- A proton pump exchanges K+ for H+ to get the K+ back into the cell
- H+ and Cl- are in the lumen so HCL is produced.
What activates gastric acid secretion?
- Acetylcholine from a nerve and Gastrin from the blood act on histamine releasing cells, causing histamine to be released.
- Histamine binds to a receptor in the parietal cell and activates the secretion of gastric acid.
Name 2 gastric acid related diseases.
- GERD (gastro eosophogeal reflux disease)
- Peptic ulcer disease
What are gastric acid diseases caused by?
- Excess acid production
- Weak sphincter
- Decreased mucous
What are the 4 pharmacological methods used to treat gastric acid related diseases?
- 1. Cytoprotective
- 2. Antacids
- 3.. H2 receptor antagonists
- 4. Proton pump inhibitors
- 5. Antibiotics
How do Cytoprotective drugs work? Give an example.
- Coat the surface of the stomach
- Bismuth Chelate
How do Antacids work? Give an example.
- Neutralise gastric acid
- Magnesium Hydroxide
How do H2 receptor antagonists work? Give an example.
- Inhibit the histamine receptor
How do proton pump inhibitors work? Give an example.
- Prevent HCL accumulation by blocking the pump.
- (Drug of choice, pH and cell specific)
How do antibiotics work? Give an example.
- Kill the H. pylori bacteria that infects the stomach and causes inflammation that leads to peptic ulcer formation.