NS 70: Disorders of Olfaction & Taste

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dvb69339
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16652
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NS 70: Disorders of Olfaction & Taste
Updated:
2010-04-28 15:54:56
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Neuroscience
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Neuroscience Week 7
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  1. How many neurons exist in the OEp?
    about 100 million
  2. Approximately what is the area of the OEp?
    2 cm2
  3. What is anosmia?
    The condition whereby you cannot smell anything
  4. What is hyposmia?
    The condition by which you have a decreased sense of smell
  5. What is dysosmia?
    The dyfunction of smell
  6. What is Parosmia?
    Distortion of a smell, usually to something bad
  7. What is Phantosmia?
    Smells, usually bad, that are derived from no physical stimuli
  8. What is hypersomia and how common is it?
    • extrasensation of a smell
    • not particularly common
  9. What are the four methods of olfactory function and what are their clinical relevance?
    • Threshold Testing: series of different concentrations of butanoyl, but not very clinically relevant because of adaptation of the olfactory neurons
    • Identification Testing: this one is actually used and consists of multiple choice scratch and sniff smells because natural smells do not keep too long in a clinical setting
    • There are also Electro-olfactograms and Brain-Evoked Potentials: these are not clinically relevant
  10. What three things factor into olfactory testing?
    • Age: the older you get, the less you can smell especially after 60 years
    • Gender: women smell better than men
    • Adaptation: takes about 1-5 minutes for us to go from a strong smell to hardly noticable
  11. What are the two broad disorders of olfactory function?
    • Conductive: this is something a clinician can do something about
    • Sensorineural: this is a disorder of the actual sensor/neuron cell; harder to fix
  12. What are the two causes of conductal olfactory disorders?
    • Obstructive Nasal/Sinus Disease
    • Neoplasms
  13. How would you differentiate a nasal polyp from a neoplasm?
    • well a nasal polyp is a sinus epithelium that is so swollen up that it blocks the nose (1st picture)
    • a neoplasm is just a cancer there (2nd picture)
  14. What are the causes of sensorineural anosmia?
    • §Aging Parkinsons, Alzheimers
    • §Congenital: Kallman's Syndrome
    • §Viral injury
    • §Toxic injury
    • §Inflammatory diseases
    • §Head traumas
    • §Neoplasms
    • §Endocrine/Metabolic: diabetes, cushing's disease, renal failure, vitamin deficiencies
    • §Medication related: antibiotics, chemotherapy, antithyroid agents, diuretics, opiates, anti-seizure agents, hypoglycemic agents
    • §Iatrogenic: We cause
    • §Psychiatric disorders
    • §Idiopathic
  15. What are the diagnositic steps for determining olfactory function?
    • Hx
    • Physical Exam
    • Nasal Endoscopy
    • Identification tests
    • Imaging
    • Laboratory
    • Biopsy
  16. How do we treat olfactory disorders?
    • conductive: relieve obstruction
    • sensorineural: steriods, vitamins, and zinc
  17. 80% of taste disorders are due to what?
    Olfaction problems
  18. Which nerves gather taste for the tongue?
    • chorda tympani (CN VII): anterior 2/3 of tongue
    • glossopharyngeal (CN IX): posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • laryngeal (CN X): very back and pharynx, cheeks, etc
  19. What causes your eyes to water when you eat ammonia?
    Trigeminal Nerve
  20. What are the 5 basic tastes?
    • sweet
    • salt
    • sour
    • bitter
    • umami
  21. What are the four steps of testing gustatory function?
    • assess olfaction
    • threshold testing
    • magnitude matching: matching sound with taste
    • spatial testing
  22. What are common reasons for taste disorders?
    • aging
    • xerostomia
    • medication induced
    • endocrine/metabolic
    • malnutrition
    • trauma
    • neoplasms

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