NS 70: Disorders of Olfaction & Taste

The flashcards below were created by user dvb69339 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. How many neurons exist in the OEp?
    about 100 million
  2. Approximately what is the area of the OEp?
    2 cm2
  3. What is anosmia?
    The condition whereby you cannot smell anything
  4. What is hyposmia?
    The condition by which you have a decreased sense of smell
  5. What is dysosmia?
    The dyfunction of smell
  6. What is Parosmia?
    Distortion of a smell, usually to something bad
  7. What is Phantosmia?
    Smells, usually bad, that are derived from no physical stimuli
  8. What is hypersomia and how common is it?
    • extrasensation of a smell
    • not particularly common
  9. What are the four methods of olfactory function and what are their clinical relevance?
    • Threshold Testing: series of different concentrations of butanoyl, but not very clinically relevant because of adaptation of the olfactory neurons
    • Identification Testing: this one is actually used and consists of multiple choice scratch and sniff smells because natural smells do not keep too long in a clinical setting
    • There are also Electro-olfactograms and Brain-Evoked Potentials: these are not clinically relevant
  10. What three things factor into olfactory testing?
    • Age: the older you get, the less you can smell especially after 60 years
    • Gender: women smell better than men
    • Adaptation: takes about 1-5 minutes for us to go from a strong smell to hardly noticable
  11. What are the two broad disorders of olfactory function?
    • Conductive: this is something a clinician can do something about
    • Sensorineural: this is a disorder of the actual sensor/neuron cell; harder to fix
  12. What are the two causes of conductal olfactory disorders?
    • Obstructive Nasal/Sinus Disease
    • Neoplasms
  13. How would you differentiate a nasal polyp from a neoplasm?
    • well a nasal polyp is a sinus epithelium that is so swollen up that it blocks the nose (1st picture)
    • a neoplasm is just a cancer there (2nd picture)
    • Image Upload 1
    • Image Upload 2
  14. What are the causes of sensorineural anosmia?
    • §Aging Parkinsons, Alzheimers
    • §Congenital: Kallman's Syndrome
    • §Viral injury
    • §Toxic injury
    • §Inflammatory diseases
    • §Head traumas
    • §Neoplasms
    • §Endocrine/Metabolic: diabetes, cushing's disease, renal failure, vitamin deficiencies
    • §Medication related: antibiotics, chemotherapy, antithyroid agents, diuretics, opiates, anti-seizure agents, hypoglycemic agents
    • §Iatrogenic: We cause
    • §Psychiatric disorders
    • §Idiopathic
  15. What are the diagnositic steps for determining olfactory function?
    • Hx
    • Physical Exam
    • Nasal Endoscopy
    • Identification tests
    • Imaging
    • Laboratory
    • Biopsy
  16. How do we treat olfactory disorders?
    • conductive: relieve obstruction
    • sensorineural: steriods, vitamins, and zinc
  17. 80% of taste disorders are due to what?
    Olfaction problems
  18. Which nerves gather taste for the tongue?
    • chorda tympani (CN VII): anterior 2/3 of tongue
    • glossopharyngeal (CN IX): posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • laryngeal (CN X): very back and pharynx, cheeks, etc
  19. What causes your eyes to water when you eat ammonia?
    Trigeminal Nerve
  20. What are the 5 basic tastes?
    • sweet
    • salt
    • sour
    • bitter
    • umami
  21. What are the four steps of testing gustatory function?
    • assess olfaction
    • threshold testing
    • magnitude matching: matching sound with taste
    • spatial testing
  22. What are common reasons for taste disorders?
    • aging
    • xerostomia
    • medication induced
    • endocrine/metabolic
    • malnutrition
    • trauma
    • neoplasms
Card Set:
NS 70: Disorders of Olfaction & Taste
2010-04-28 19:54:56

Neuroscience Week 7
Show Answers: