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How many neurons exist in the OEp?
about 100 million
Approximately what is the area of the OEp?
What is anosmia?
The condition whereby you cannot smell anything
What is hyposmia?
The condition by which you have a decreased sense of smell
What is dysosmia?
The dyfunction of smell
What is Parosmia?
Distortion of a smell, usually to something bad
What is Phantosmia?
Smells, usually bad, that are derived from no physical stimuli
What is hypersomia and how common is it?
- extrasensation of a smell
- not particularly common
What are the four methods of olfactory function and what are their clinical relevance?
- Threshold Testing: series of different concentrations of butanoyl, but not very clinically relevant because of adaptation of the olfactory neurons
- Identification Testing: this one is actually used and consists of multiple choice scratch and sniff smells because natural smells do not keep too long in a clinical setting
- There are also Electro-olfactograms and Brain-Evoked Potentials: these are not clinically relevant
What three things factor into olfactory testing?
- Age: the older you get, the less you can smell especially after 60 years
- Gender: women smell better than men
- Adaptation: takes about 1-5 minutes for us to go from a strong smell to hardly noticable
What are the two broad disorders of olfactory function?
- Conductive: this is something a clinician can do something about
- Sensorineural: this is a disorder of the actual sensor/neuron cell; harder to fix
What are the two causes of conductal olfactory disorders?
- Obstructive Nasal/Sinus Disease
How would you differentiate a nasal polyp from a neoplasm?
- well a nasal polyp is a sinus epithelium that is so swollen up that it blocks the nose (1st picture)
- a neoplasm is just a cancer there (2nd picture)
What are the causes of sensorineural anosmia?
- §Aging Parkinsons, Alzheimers
- §Congenital: Kallman's Syndrome
- §Viral injury
- §Toxic injury
- §Inflammatory diseases
- §Head traumas
- §Endocrine/Metabolic: diabetes, cushing's disease, renal failure, vitamin deficiencies
- §Medication related: antibiotics, chemotherapy, antithyroid agents, diuretics, opiates, anti-seizure agents, hypoglycemic agents
- §Iatrogenic: We cause
- §Psychiatric disorders
What are the diagnositic steps for determining olfactory function?
- Physical Exam
- Nasal Endoscopy
- Identification tests
How do we treat olfactory disorders?
- conductive: relieve obstructionsensorineural: steriods, vitamins, and zinc
80% of taste disorders are due to what?
Which nerves gather taste for the tongue?
- chorda tympani (CN VII): anterior 2/3 of tongue
- glossopharyngeal (CN IX): posterior 1/3 of tongue
- laryngeal (CN X): very back and pharynx, cheeks, etc
What causes your eyes to water when you eat ammonia?
What are the 5 basic tastes?
What are the four steps of testing gustatory function?
- assess olfaction
- threshold testing
- magnitude matching: matching sound with taste
- spatial testing
What are common reasons for taste disorders?
- medication induced