MA-170 Ch 12

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fecooper
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MA-170 Ch 12
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2010-04-29 15:23:55
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Reproductive System
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Medical Terminology
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  1. gonad
    produces the reproductive cells
  2. vulva
    • external female genitalia
    • •mons pubis
    • •labia majora
    • •labia minora
    • •clitoris
    • •prepuce
    • •opening for glands
  3. internal structures (female)
    • •left and right ovary
    • •left and right uterine tube
    • •uterus
    • •vagina
    • •special glands
  4. mons pubis
    pad of fatty tissue and thick skin that overlies the front of the pubic bone
  5. clitoris
    small mass of erectile tissue and nerves, becomes erect in response to sexual stimulation
  6. labia majora
    larger of the two pairs of skin folds that protect the vaginal opening (singular = labium majus)
  7. labia minora
    smaller pair of skin folds that protect the vaginal opening (singular = labium minus)
  8. prepuce
    retractable cover over clitoris
  9. vaginal vestibule
    space between the two labia minora into which the urethra and vagina open
  10. vestibular glands
    (Bartholian glands) produce mucus-like secretion for lubrication during sexual intercourse
  11. perineum
    area between the vaginal opening and the anus
  12. ovaries
    • •primary reproductive structures
    • •produce ova (eggs) and hormones
    • •singular = ovum
  13. Fallopian tube
    • •also called uterine tubes
    • •most commom site of firtilization of the ovum, which dies within 24-48 hours if not firtilized
  14. fimbriae
    finger-like projections of the fallopian tube that create current to sweep the ovum into the tube
  15. uterus
    muscular organ that prepares to receive and nuture the firtilized ovum
  16. vagina
    • •birth canal
    • •muscular and capable of sifficient expansion for passage of the child during childbirth
    • •repository for sperm during intercourse
  17. menstrual cycle
    monthly cycle of growth and discharge of the endometrium
  18. layers of uterine tissue
    • outermost to innermost:
    • •perimetrium, is a visceral peritoneum (peri- = around, metr/o = uterine tissue)
    • •myometrium, thick muscular wall of the uterus
    • •endometrium, mucous membrane
  19. role of hypothalamus and pituitary gland on reproductive functions
    • hormones produced by these structures act on the ovaries to bring about:
    • •the production of ova
    • •the production of additional hormones, estrogen and progesterone
  20. estrogen
    • female sex hormones,
    • •responsible for female secondary sex characteristics
    • •act on femal genitalia during the menstrual cycle to produce a suitable environment for fertilization, implantation, and nutrition of the early embryo
  21. progesterone
    hormone produced by the ovaries that prepares and maintains the utetus during pregnancy.
  22. puberty
    • stage of development when genitalia reach maturity and secondary sex characteristics
    • •girls between 9 to 13 years old
  23. menarche
    first occurrence of menstruration
  24. menopause
    • natural cessation of reproductive cycles and menstruation with the decline of reproductive hormones in later years
    • •also called climacteric
    • •may occur earlier as a result of illness or surgical removal of the uterus or both ovaries
  25. menstruation
    periodic bloody discharge from the shedding of the endometrium
  26. when do the ovarian and uterine cycle begin?
    when certain unknown stimuli cause the hypothalamus to start secreting a hormone that acts on the pituitary gland, which then begins to secrete two hormones FSH and LH that act on follicles in the ovaries
  27. ovarian phase
    • •day 1-5: follicular phase. growth of the follicle. secretion of estrogen
    • •day 6-12: follicular phase continues
    • •day 13-14: ovulation. ovum us released by follicle
    • •day 15-28: luteal phase. follicle becomes corpus luteum. secretes progesterone
  28. uterine (menstrual) phase
    • •day 1-5: menses. blood is shed from the vagina.
    • •day 6-12: proliferative phase. growth of the endometrium.
    • •day 13-14: proliferative phase continues.
    • •day 15-28: secretory phase. continued growth of the endometrium, secretion of glycogen
  29. menses
    the normal flow of blood during menstruation when fertilization has not occurred
  30. oogenesis
    formation of ova
  31. vaginal speculum
    • an instrument that can be pushed apart after it is inserted into the vagina to allow examination of the cervix and the walls of the vagina
  32. cytology
    the study of cells
  33. Pap smear
    • •Papanicolaou smear or test
    • •performed to detect cancer of the cervix
    • •material is collected from areas of the body that shed cells
  34. gynecologic examination
    • (1)inspection of the external genitalia (2)speculum examination. vaginal walls and cervix inspected. smears are obtained (3)bimanual examination assesses the location, size, and mobility of the pelvic organs (4)rectovaginal examination is not always pervormed
  35. dysplasia
    abnormal development; in pathology, alteration in size, shape, and organization of adult cells, can be detected before cancer of the uterus
  36. trichomonas
    vaginal and urethral parasite
  37. gonorrhea
    infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae; transmitted sexually in most cases but also by contact with infected exudates in neonatal children at birth, or by infants in households with infected in habitants; it is characterized by discharge and painful urination in male individuals and is often asymptomatic in female individuals
  38. Gram stain
    slide-staining technique that aids in classification and identification of bacteria, is especially useful for vaginal smears if gonorrhea is suspected
  39. Rapid Plasma Reagin Test
    an agglutination test used in screening blood for syphilis
  40. syphilis
    a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum that is characterized by lesions that may involve any organ or tissue
  41. Human chorionic gonadotropin
    present in body fluids of pregnant females, and blood or urine is tested to determine if pregnancy exists; may also be used to detect rare forms of tumors in either men or women
  42. chorion
    membrane that develops around a fertilized embryo
  43. gonadotropin
    a hormonal substance that stimulates the gonads
  44. colposcopy
    use of a low-powered microscope to magnify the mucosa of the vagina and the cervix
  45. colposcope
    instrument used in a colposcopy
  46. hysteroscopy
    direct vaginal inspection of the cervical canal and uterine cavity, using an endoscope passed through the vagina
  47. hysteroscope
    endoscope used in a heterscopy
  48. pelvic sonography
    helpful in detecting masses, such as ovarian cysts
  49. computed tomography
    may be used to detect a tumor within the pelvis
  50. hysterosalpingography
    radiologic examination of the uterus and uterine tubes after an injection of radiopaque material into those organs. it allows evaluation of the size, shape, and position of the organs, including tumors and certain other abnormalities, as well as obstruction of a uterine tube
  51. hysterosalpingogram
    record produced in hysterosalpingography
  52. laparoscopy
    examination of the abdominal body with a laparoscope through one or more incisions in the abdominal wall. especially useful for inspection of the ovaries and other structures within the pelvic cavity, as well as collection of biopsy specimens or performance of tubal ligation to prevent pregnancy
  53. menstrual disorders
    • •painful menstruation
    • •heavy or irregular flow
    • •spotting
    • •absence of or skipping periods
    • •premenstrual syndrome
  54. menorrhea
    means either normal menstruation or too profuse menstruation
  55. menorrhagia
    profuse menstruation
  56. metrorrhagia
    • uterine bleeding other than that caused by menstruation
    • •may occur as spotting or outright bleeding, the period flow sometimes being prolonged
    • •may be caused by uterine tumors, benign or malignant, and especially cervical cancer
  57. amenorrhea
    • absence of menstruation
    • •normal before puberty, after menopause, and during pregnancy
  58. dysmenorrhea
    painful or difficult menstruation
  59. mittelschmerz
    abdominal pain in the region of an ovary during ovulation, it is helpful in pinpointing the fertile period of the ovarian cycle
  60. premenstrual syndrome
    • nervous tension, irritability, edema, headache, and painful breasts that can occur the last few days before the onset of menstruation
    • •many females experience some degree of PMS but fewer than half experience symptoms that disrupt their lives
  61. cervicitis
    inflammation of the cervix uteri
  62. acute cervicitis
    • infection of the cervix marked by redness, bleeding on contact, and often pain, itching, or burning, and a foul smelling discharge from the vagina
    • •may be caused by several species of bacteria, Chlamydia, Candida albicans (yeast), or the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, or some STDs like gonorrhea
  63. chronic cervicitis
    persistent inflammation of the cervix
  64. vaginitis
    • inflammation of the vaginal tissues or infection of the vagina
    • •may be accompanied by itching, burning or discomfort during urination, and vaginal discharge
    • •however some infections are asymptomatic
    • •vaginal infections are usually related to sexual intercourse but can also occur after childbirth or after taking antibiotics that produce changes in the vaginal tissues
    • •sny = colpitis
  65. colpitis
    • inflammation of vaginal tissues or infection of the vagina
    • •syn = vaginitis
  66. vulvitis
    • inflammation of the vulva
    • •associated with itching and burning
    • •can be caused by infection, contact with irritants (soaps, detergents or allergens), or systemic conditions like dryness of the tissues and hormonal changes, particularly associated with aging, or STDs
  67. vulvovaginitis
    • inflammation of the vulva and vagina
    • •vulvar infections can be extension of vaginal infections
  68. oophoropathy
    any disease of an ovary
  69. oophoritis
    inflammation of an ovary
  70. oophoralgia
    ovarian pain
  71. oophorosalpingitis
    inflammation of an ovary and a fallopian tube
  72. anovulation
    • absence of ovulation
    • •failure of the ovaries to produce, mature, or release ova
    • •causes include altered ovarian function or dysfunction, side effects of medications, and stress or disease
  73. polycystic ovary syndrome
    • hormonal disturbance characterized by anovulation, amenorrhea, and infertility
    • •caused by increased levels of testosterone, estrogen, and luteinizing hormone and decreased secretion of FSH
    • •numerous cysts may develop, with the affected ovary sometimes doubling in size
  74. ovarian cyst
    • globular sac filled with fluid or semisolid material that develops in or on the ovary
    • •may be transient or pathologic
    • •benign cysts are common and may be asymptomatic or they may cause pelvic pain and menstrual irregularities
  75. ovarian cancer
    • •leading cause of death from reproductive cancers because the disease has usually spread to other organs by the time it is discovered
    • •sonography and CT may detect the mass but diagnosis generally requires surgical exploration
  76. salpingocele
    hernial protrusion of a fallopian tube
  77. salpingitis
    inflammation of a fallopian tube
  78. ectopic pregnancy
    • fertilized ovum implants somewhere outside of the uterine cavity, usually in the fallopian tube
    • (ect/o = outside, top/o = position, -ic = pertaing to)
  79. tubal pregnancy
    fertilized ovum implants in the fallopian tube, treatment is generally removal of the pregnancy and the fallopian tube
  80. pelvic inflammatory disease
    • (PID) any infection that involves the upper genital tract beyond the cervix
    • •fallopian tubes usually infected
    • •without treatment, the tubes can become obstructed and cause infertility
    • •untreated staphylococcal infections can spread along the endometrium to the fallopian tubes and cause and acute salpingitits
  81. septicemia
    infection of the blood
  82. toxic shock syndrome
    • septicemia, sudden high fever, headache, confusion, acute renal failure, and abnormal liver function are characteristic of TSS
    • •caused by Staphylococcus species and is most common in menstruating women who use tampons
  83. uterine cancer
    identified by the extent to which it has spread to other organs starting with stage I (confined to uterine corpus) and ending at stage IV (spread beyond the pelvis)
  84. hysteropathy
    any disease of the uterus
  85. hysteroptosis
    • weakening of the ligaments that normally hold it in place, causing uterine prolapse
    • •can be congenital or caused by heavy physical exertion
    • •classified according to severity
  86. uterine displacements
    variations from the midline in the pelvis,
  87. anteversion
    forward displacement of the body of the uterus
  88. retroversion
    uterus is tipped backward
  89. anteflexion
    bending forward of the uterus
  90. retroflexion
    bending backward of the uterus
  91. uterine leiomyoma
    benign tumor occurring in the uterus and is also called a uterine fibroid. large tumors may cause general enlargement of the lower abdomen
  92. cervical polyps
    benign lesions attached to the cervix, often by a stalk and can sometimes be seen in a gynecological examination
  93. myometritis
    inflammation of the myometrium
  94. endometritis
    inflammation of the endometrium, generally produced by bacterial invasion of the endometrium
  95. endometriosis
    • abnormal condition in which tissue that contains typical endometrial elements is present outside of the uterus, usually within the pelvic cavity
    • •endometrial tissue that is located outside the uterine lining responds to hormonal changes and goes through cyclic changes of bleeding and proliferation, scarring and adhesions result
  96. leukorrhea
    • •white, viscid (sticky) discharge from the vagina and uterine cavity
    • •normally occurs in the adult female
    • •somewhat increased before and after the menstrual period
  97. colpodynia
    pain of the vagina
  98. colporrhagia
    hemorrhage from the vagina
  99. vaginal fistulas
    • abnormal openings between the vagina and the urethra, the bladder, or the rectum
    • •urethrovaginal fistulas = between the urethra and the vagina
    • •rectovaginal fistulas = between the rectum and the vagina
    • •vesicovaginal fistulas = between the bladder and the vagina
  100. cystocele
    • protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina
    • •occurs when support is weakened between the two tructures
    • •large one can interfere with emptying the bladder
  101. rectocele
    • protrusion of the rectum through the wall of the vagina
    • •weakening between the vagina and rectum
    • •large one can interfere with emptying the rectum
  102. contraceptives
    used to prevent conception
  103. most common gynecological problems for which females seek treatment?
    vaginal discharge, bleeding, and pain
  104. vulvectomy
    • excision of the vulva
    • •characteristically used to treat cancer of the vulva
  105. vaginectomy
    removal of all or part of the vagina
  106. colpectomy
    removal of all or part of the vagina
  107. colporrhaphy
    suture of the vagina
  108. colpoplasty
    surgical repair of the vagina
  109. oophoropexy
    surgical fixation to correct an ovary that has lost its normal support
  110. oophorectomy
    • surgical excision of one or both ovaries
    • •laparoscopic oophorectomy is selected whenever possible and greatly reduces the recovery time recovered for an abdominal oophorectomy
  111. hysterectomy
    • removal of the uterus either laparoscopically (laparohysterectomy), vaginally (colpohysterectomy), or via open abdominal surgery
    • •abdominal hysterectomy = removed through an incision in the abdominal wall, used when the pelvic cavity is to be explored or when the ovaries and the uterine tubes are to be removed at the same time
    • •subtotal hysterectomy = rarely done, removal of the uterus without removing the cervix
    • •total hysterectomy = removal of uterus and cervix
  112. bilateral oophorosalpingectomy
    removal of both ovaries and both fallopian tubes
  113. salpingo-oophorectomy
    removal of an ovary and its uterine tube
  114. pelvic exenteration
    removal of all pelvic organs, dont when other forms of therapy are ineffective in controlling the spread of cancer and no metastases have been found outside of the pelvis
  115. salpingectomy
    surgical removal of one or both fallopian tubes
  116. tubal ligation
    • one of several sterilization procedures in which both uterine tubes are constricted, severed, or crushed to prevent conception
    • •most often performed laparoscopically
    • •can be reversed but not always successfully
  117. dilation and curettage
    • cervix is dilated to allow the insertion of a curet (sugical instrument shaped like a spoon) into the uterus to scrape and remove material from the endometrium
    • •done to assess disease of the uterus, correct heavy or prolonged vaginal bleeding, empty the uterus of residue after childbirth, and to remove the products of conception
  118. cryotherapy
    • •also called cryosurgery
    • •uses subfreezing temperature to destroy tissue
  119. cauterization
    to burn tissues by laser, hot metal, electricity, or another agent with the objective of destroying tissue
  120. hysteropexy
    surgical fixation of a displace uterus
  121. salpingopexy
    surgical fixation of a fallopian tube
  122. salpingorrhaphy
    suture of a fallopian tube
  123. testes
    • testicles; male gonads, responsible for production of both spermatozoa and hormones
    • •paired oval glands
    • •divided into several compartments called lobules
    • •singular = testis
  124. spermatozoa
    • male sex cells (sperm)
    • •singular = spermatozoon
  125. penis
    • male organ for copulation
    • •penile = pert. to the penis
  126. glans penis
    conical tip of the penis
  127. male reproductive system
  128. copulation
    •coitus
  129. scrotum
    pouch of loose skin that contains the two testes and their accessory organs
  130. scrotal
    pert. to the scrotum
  131. testicular
    pert. to a testicle or testicles
  132. spermatic
    pert. to sperm or pert. to semen
  133. ductus deferens
    • •vas deferens
    • •long duct that begins at the epididymis, enters the abdominal cavity, and connects with other structures of the internal reproductive tract
  134. prostatic
    pert. to the prostate
  135. prostate
    gland that surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra in males, also produces fluids that contribute to semen and are necessary for the survival of sperm
  136. bulbourethral glands
    paired glands that contribute an alkaline mucus-like fluid the the semen
  137. seminal vesicles
    paired saclike glandular structures in the male sex that produce a fluid that is added to the secretion of the testes and other glands to form semen
  138. semen
    • •seminal fluid
    • •secretion of the male reproductive organs that is discharged from the urethra
    • •mixture of sperm cells and secretions from accessory glands (prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands
  139. urethra
    passage by which urine is discharged from the bladder
  140. seminal
    pert. to semen
  141. spermatogenesis
    • production of mature, functional sperm capable of participating in conception
    • •requires a temperature slightly lower than body temp
    • •influenced by hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and the testes
    • •begins at puberty, normally continues throughout life, decline in later years
  142. seminiferous tubules
    tubules in each lobules of the testes, where sperm are produced
  143. epididymis
    where sperm are stored until they are released
  144. interstitial cells of Leydig
    surround seminiferous tubules and produce testosterone
  145. testosterone
    hormone secreted by the testes that brings about induction and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
  146. route of sperm
    seminiferous tubules of the testes (sperm production) => epididymis (sperm storage) => ductus deferens => ejaculatory duct => urethra => ejaculation of sperm in semen
  147. routine examination of male genitalia
    (1) inspection of the external genitalia (2) palpation for inguinal hernias and (3) examination of the rectum digitally
  148. chancre
    lesion that indicates the first stage of syphilis
  149. inguinal hernia
    hernia in which a loop of the intestine enters the inguinal canal, sometimes fills the entire scrotal sac
  150. prostate-specific antigen test
    a blood test used to screen for prostatic cancer and monitor the patient's response to treatment
  151. needle biopsy
    needle inserted through the rectal mucosa to the prostate to remove a small amount of tissue if cancer of the prostate is suspected
  152. sperm count
    test for male fertility
  153. urology
    branch of medicine that specializes in the male and female urinary tract and also includes male reproductive structures
  154. testicular cancer
    more common in younger men
  155. prostatic cancer
    more common in older men
  156. torsion of the testes
    • axial rotation of the spermatic cord
    • •cuts off the blood supply to the testicle and can lead to loss of the testicle
    • •surgical correction within a few hours is required to save the testicle
  157. oligospermia
    insufficient sperm in the semen
  158. aspermia
    absence of sperm
  159. aspermatogenesis
    absence of sperm
  160. azoospermia
    absence of living sperm
  161. erection
    • condition of swelling, rigidity, and elevation of the penis, and to a lesser degree in the clitoris of the female, caused by sexual arousal
    • •can occur during sleep
  162. erectile dysfunction
    • inability to achieve penile erection
    • •male impotence
    • •can be caused by poor health, certain drugs, fatigue, and vascular problems
    • •sildenafil (Viagra) or tadalafil (Cialis) can be used
  163. cryptorchidism
    • developmental defect characterized by the failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum
    • •hormones or surgery are used to help the testicle descend
  164. testalgia
    • testicular pain
    • •orchialgia
    • •orchidalgia
  165. orchiopathy
    any disease of the testes
  166. anorchidism
    • congenital absence of the testis
    • •may occur unilaterally or bilaterally
    • •also called = anorchism
  167. orchiditis
    • inflammation of the testis
    • •marked by pain, swelling, and feeling of weight
    • •orchitis
  168. epididymitis
    inflammation of the epididymis
  169. hydocele
    • mass, usually filled with a straw-colored fluid (hydr/o)
    • •may be the result of orchitis, epididymitis, or venous or lymphatic obstruction
  170. spermatocele
    • mass that contains sperm
    • •develops on the epididymis
    • •often painless, may need no intervention
  171. vericocele
    • cluster of dilated veins that occurs above the tesis
    • •asymptomatic in many cases but may contribute to infertility
  172. phimosis
    • occurs when the prepuce is constricted at the opening so that it cannot be retracted back over the glans penis
    • •caused by inflammation or edema
    • •sometimes accompanied by balanitis
  173. balanitis
    inflammation of the glans penis
  174. benign prostatic hyperplasia
    • common disorder, particularly in men over 50
    • •not malignant
    • •usually progressive and may lead to obstruction of the urethra and to interference with urination
    • •urinary frequency, pain, and urinary tract infections are characteristic of this disorder
    • •prostatitis may also occur
  175. prostatitis
    can be acute or chronic, bacterial or abacterial, or without known cause
  176. prostatic carcinoma
    • cancer of the prostate
    • •usually occurs in men over 50
    • •most common cancer among men besides skin cancer
  177. orchiectomy
    excision of the testis
  178. orchioplasty
    surgical repair of a testicle
  179. orchiotomy
    incision and drainage of a testis
  180. hydrocelectomy
    surgical removal of a hydrocele
  181. circumcision
    surgical removal of the end of the prepuce
  182. transurethral resection prostatectomy
    • surgical procedure that is performed through the urethra, and small pieces of the enlarged prostate are removed
    • •treatment for BPH
  183. transurethral microwave thermotherapy
    • uses microwave energy to raise the temperature of the prostatic tissue
    • •treatment for BPH
  184. transurethral needle ablation
    • uses low-level radio frequency energy
    • •treatment for PBH
  185. ablation
    removal or excision of a growth on any part of the body
  186. BPH
    benign prostatic hyperplasia
  187. Cx
    cervix
  188. D&C
    dilation and curettage
  189. FSH
    follicle-stimulating hormone
  190. GU
    genitourinary
  191. GYN, Gyn, gyn
    gynecology
  192. hCG, HCG
    human chorionic gonadotropin
  193. HRT
    hormone replacement therapy
  194. LH
    luteinizing hormone
  195. LMP
    last menstrual period
  196. NIH
    National Institute of Health
  197. Pap
    Papanicolaour smear, stain, or test
  198. PID
    pelvic inflammatory disease
  199. PMS
    premenstrual syndrome
  200. PSA
    prostate-specific antigen
  201. RPR
    rapid plasma reagin test (for syphilis)
  202. STD
    sexually transmitted disease
  203. TAH
    total abdominal hysterectomy
  204. TSS
    toxic shock syndrome
  205. TUMT
    transurethral microwave thermotherapy
  206. TUNA
    transurethral needle ablation
  207. TURP
    transurethral resection of the prostate
  208. VDRL
    Venereal Disease Research Laboratories

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