Sociology chapter 3

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Sociology chapter 3
2010-04-28 16:46:54

midterm chapter 3
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  1. culture
    the way of life of a people; more specifically, the human created straegies for adjusting to the environment and to those creatures (including humans) that are part of that environment
  2. society
    a group of interacting peopel who share, perpetuate, and create culture
  3. material culture
    all the natural and human-created objects to which people have attached meaning
  4. nonmaterial culture
    intangible human creations, which we cannot identify directly through the senses
  5. beliefs
    conceptions that people accept as true, concerning how the world operates and where the individual fits in relationships to others
  6. values
    general, shared conceptions of what si good, right, appropriate, worthwhile, and important with regard to conduct, appearance, and states of being
  7. Norms
    written and unwritten rules that specify behaviors appropriate and inappropriate to a particular social situation
  8. folkways
    norms that apply to the mundane aspects or details of daily life
  9. Mores
    norms that people define as critical to th well being of a group. violation of mores can result in severe forms of punishment
  10. symbols
    any kind of physical or conceptual phenomenon- a word, an object, a sound, a feeling, an odor, a gesture or bodily movement, or a concept of time-to which people assign a name and a meaning or value
  11. language
    a symol system involving the use of sounds, gestures (signing) and or hcaracters (such as letters or pictures) to convey meaning
  12. languistic relativity hypothesis
    the idea that "no two languages are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representing the same social reality. the worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with different labels attached
  13. social emotions
    internal bodily sensations that we experience in relationships with other people
  14. feelings rules
    norms that specify appropriate ways to express internal sensations
  15. diffusion
    the process by which an idea, an vention, or some other cultural item is borrowed from a foreign source
  16. reentry stock
    culture shock in reverse; it is experienced upon returning home after living in another culture
  17. ethnocentrism
    a viewpoint that uses one culture, usually the home culture, as the standard for judging the worth of the foreign ways,
  18. cultural genocide
    an extreme form of ethnocentrism in which the people of one society define the culture of another society not as merely offensive, but as so intolerable that they attempt to destroy it
  19. reverse ethnocentrism
    a type of ethnocentrism in which the home culture is regarded as inferior to a foreign culture
  20. cultural relativism
    the perspective that a foreign culture should not be judged by the standards of a home culture and that a behavior of way of thinking must be examined in its cultural context
  21. subcultures
  22. subcultures
    groups that share in some parts of there dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, beliefs, symbols, language, or material culture
  23. institutionally complete subcultures
    subcultures whose members do no interact with anyone outside their subculture to shop for food, atend school, recieve medical care, or find companionship because the subsculture satisfies these needs
  24. countercultures
    subcultures in which the norms, values, beliefs, symbols, and language the members share emphasize conflict or opposition to the larger culture. in fact, rejection of the dominant cultures values, norms, symbols, and beliefs is central to understanding a counterculture