ch 29

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Mattheplaya
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ch 29
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2010-04-28 17:37:52
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  1. Diamond and gold prospector, imperialist, founder of the British South Africa Company, and Prime Minister of Cape Colony, 1890 – 1896
    Cecil John Rhodes
  2. Cecil Rhodes’s vision of British imperial control of the vertical axis of Africa, from South Africa to Egypt
    “Cape Town to Cairo”
  3. Domination over subject lands by means of military conquest and political control or informally, through control of trade, investment, and business activity
    Imperialism
  4. The colonial expansion adopted by European powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the 19th and early 20th centuries
    Modern Imperialism
  5. Imperialist justification for European (“civilized”) intervention in “backward” areas of the non-Christian world
    Mission Civilisatrice
  6. European and American assumption
    that dark-skinned peoples everywhere were in need of guidance and protection by
    the “master race”
    The White Man’s Burden”
  7. Constructed by Ferdinand de Lesseps (1859 – 1869), controlled by Britain (1875), and nationalized by Nasser
    of Egypt (1956)
    Suez Canal
  8. Begun by Ferdinand de Lesseps, completed by the U.S. under the order of Theodore Roosevelt (1904 – 1914), administered by U.S. until 1999
    Panama Canal
  9. First self-powered gun, invented by an American-born Briton in 1884; recoil force used to eject spent cartridge and advance next round (11 X / sec.)
    Maxim Gun
  10. Lopsided British and Egyptian victory over Madhist Islamic forces of Sudan (1898); gunboats on the Nile and machine guns kill 10,000 Sudanese (47 Anglo-Egyptians dead)
    Omdurman
  11. First commercially successful transatlantic telegraph cable connected Ireland and Newfoundland
    1866
  12. Soldiers of the Bengal army revolted against English East India Company control (1857); British success brought India under direct imperial rule (1858)
    Sepoy Rebellion
  13. Monarch of the United Kingdom and Empress of India (r. 1837 – 1901); gave her name to an era of British imperial expansion and material progress
    Queen Victoria
  14. The period of British imperial rule in South Asia (1858 – 1947)
    British Raj
  15. Hindu custom of widows burning themselves to death on their husbands’ funeral pyres; suppressed during the British Raj
    Sati
  16. Strategically important sea lane between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, controlled by British Singapore (1819 – 1965)
    Strait of Melaka
  17. Modern states of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos; colonized 1859 – 1893
    French Indochina
  18. Nationalist ruler of Egypt (1805 – 1848); inspired by Napoleon, he challenged and nearly defeated the Ottoman empire
    Muhammad Ali
  19. Agreements that protected Christian missionaries, exempted European visitors from Ottoman law, and provided European trading companies with extraterritoriality
    Capitulations
  20. The right of imperial powers to exercise legal jurisdiction over their own citizens in foreign lands
    Extraterritoriality
  21. Reorganization era of Ottoman history (1839 – 1876); attempt at staving off European aggression through legal, political, and educational reforms based on the European Enlightenment
    Tanzimat
  22. Founded by Ottoman exiles in Paris (1889); advocated universal suffrage, religious freedom, emancipation of women; controlled Ottoman empire (1908 – 1918)
    Young Turk Party
  23. Conflict between the United Kingdom and the Qing government over “free trade”; Britain won the right to traffic narcotics; added Hong Kong to their empire (1839 – 1842)
    Opium War
  24. Series of diplomatic agreements between China and several imperial powers (including the U.S.); curtailed Chinese sovereignty by placing ninety of their ports under foreign control
    Unequal Treaties
  25. Unsuccessful attempt on the part of Chinese peasants led by Hong Xiuquan to establish a messianic, communal kingdom (1850 – 1864); 20 – 30 million killed
    Taiping Rebellion
  26. Qing reforms (1860 – 1895) aimed at accelerating Chinese industrialization and scientific progress; failed to prevent further imperialist interventions
    Self-Strengthening Movement
  27. Frantic program to modernize China and transform it into a constitutional monarchy; annulled by emperor’s aunt Cixi (1898)
    Hundred Days Reforms
  28. Chinese militias supported by Cixi attacked “foreign devils” and besieged their embassies (1899); crushed by European, Japanese, and U.S. soldiers (1900)
    Boxer Rebellion
  29. Revolution that ended the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China (1912)
    1911
  30. The partition and colonization of most of the continent by European powers (1875 – 1900)
    Scramble for Africa”
  31. Created a personal colony in the Congo River basin (1884 – 1908); exploited its resources and labor for his own and Belgian wealth, at the cost of eight million African lives
    King Leopold II
  32. Diplomatic meeting convened by Bismarck; fourteen European powers and the U.S. agreed to carve Africa into imperial colonies, leaving only Ethiopia and Liberia as independent states (1884 – 1885)
    Berlin Conference
  33. Dutch immigrants to Cape Colony; their descendants in South Africa and Namibia speak Afrikaans (an expatriate dialect of 17th century Dutch)
    Boers
  34. Boer migration from Cape Colony to interior regions to escape British control (1830s)
    Great Trek
  35. British defeat of Afrikaners (Boers) in a brutal conflict ignited by diamond and gold rushes (1899 – 1902)
    South African War
  36. Colony of transported British convicts established around Sydney harbor in Australia (1788)
    New South Wales
  37. Indigenous people of New Zealand, devastated by disease and warfare with British settlers
    Maori
  38. American proclamation warning European powers against imperialist interference in the western hemisphere (1823)
    Monroe Doctrine
  39. The only Pacific island state not claimed by European powers at the Berlin Conference (1884 – 1885)
    Tonga
  40. Purchased from the Russian empire by the U.S. (1867)
    Alaska
  41. U.S. protectorate (1875); annexed by U.S. after traditional monarchy overthrown (1898)
    Hawai’i
  42. After the accidental sinking of U.S.S. Maine in Havana harbor, U.S. defeated Spain and gained control over Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines (1898 – 1899)
    Spanish-Cuban-American War
  43. Leader of Filipino rebellion against U.S. occupation forces (1899 – 1902); over 200,000 Filipinos killed; 4,200 American dead
    Emilio Aguinaldo
  44. The expansion of the Monroe Doctrine that claimed the right of the U.S. to interfere with sovereign states that fail to protect American business interests (1904)
    Roosevelt Corollary
  45. European theory that claimed the superiority of the European “race” over those of the Africans, the Asians, and the Native Americans (Gobineau, 1855)
    Scientific Racism
  46. Misapplying biological concepts from The Origin of Species (1859), Herbert Spencer and others argued that European global preeminence resulted from innate superiority
    Social Darwinists

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