Anatomy Midterm A

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bamerb07
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Anatomy Midterm A
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2012-08-31 17:22:58
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Danielle King Anatomy
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1st midterm cards
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  1. Describe the anatomical position
    Standing up, facing forward with upper extremities at side and the palms of the hands facing out with the pinkie closest to the body.
  2. Sagittal (Median)
    • -Midsagittal
    • -Parasagittal
    • Up and Down cuts
  3. Midsagittal
    A vertical plane that passes through the midline of the body and divides the body in equal right and left sides
  4. Parasagittal
    A vertical plane that does not pass through the midline of the body and which divides the body into unequal right and left sides
  5. Frontal (Coronal)
    A vertical plane at a right angle to the midsagittal plane which divides the body or an organ into anterior and posterior portions
  6. Transverse (Horizontal)
    • A plane that is parallel to the ground, therefore at a right angle to the midsagittal plane and divides the body or an organ into superior and inferior portions
    • Can also be called a cross section
  7. Oblique
    Slanted, at an angle
  8. Superior (Cranial, Cephalic)
    More toward the head end of the body or toward the upper end or surface of a body part
  9. Inferior (Caudal)
    More toward the feet, or toward the lower end or surface of a body part
  10. Anterior (Ventral)
    More toward the front surface of the body or an organ
  11. Posterior (Dorsal)
    More toward the back or rear surface of the body or an organ
  12. Medial
    Toward the midline of the body or an organ or as viewed as the midline
  13. Lateral
    Away from the midline of the body or an organ, or as viewed from the side
  14. Proximal
    Nearer the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
  15. Distal
    Further from the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
  16. Superficial
    More near the surface of the body
  17. Deep
    Further away from the surface of the body
  18. What does the posterior (dorsal) body cavity contain?
    • Cranial cavity (brain)
    • Vertebral (spinal) cavity (spinal cord)
  19. What does the anterior (ventral) body cavity contain?
    • Thoracic Cavity
    • -Right pleural cavity
    • -left pleural cavity
    • -Mediastinum (everything but the lungs)
    • --Pericardial Cavity (Around the heart)
    • Abdominal Cavity
    • -Abdominal cavity
    • -Pelvic Cavity
  20. What are the 11 systems in the body?
    • Integumentary
    • Digestive
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic
    • Nervous
    • Muscular
    • Endocrine
    • Urinary
    • Reproductive
    • Respiratory
  21. Human Taxonomy
    • Domain: Eukarya
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Chordata (has to have a dorsal hollow nerve cord)
    • Sub Phylum: Vertebrata (backbone)
    • Class: Mamalia (Hair)
    • Order: Primates
    • Family: Homindae
    • Species: Homosapien
  22. 5 Characteristics of the Human Body Plan
    • 1. Symmetry-bilateral
    • 2. Repeatin segmentation
    • 3. Tube within a tube design
    • 4. Dorsal hollow berve cord which become the brain and spinal cord
    • 5. Vertebral column (back bone)
  23. Biological Hierarchy
    • Atoms
    • Molecules
    • Organelle
    • Cells
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ system
    • Organism
  24. Cytology
    Study of cells
  25. Histology
    Study of tissues
  26. What are the 4 major types of tissues
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  27. What is the fxn of epithelial tissues
    • Cover surfaces
    • Line Cavities
    • Glands
  28. What is the fxn of Connective tissue
    most prominent and most diverse in fxn
  29. what is the fxn of muscle tissue
    ability to contract
  30. what is the fxn. of nervous tissue
    initiate elecrtrical impulses
  31. what are the general structures of ET?
    • cells are tightly packed and numerous
    • cells can either be clumped-glandualar ET or act like sheets-covering and lining
    • Polarity-apical vs basal
    • Avascular-no blood supply
    • Innervated-have nerves
    • Highly regenerative
  32. What kind of junction is the tightest and why?
    • Tight Jxn.
    • Fluid tight seal. "sewn" together with proteins
    • Cells control fluid movement as fluid cannot pass through tight junctions
  33. What is a desmosome jxn?
    Anchor cells to resist stretch.
  34. What is a gap jxn?
    • Like a tunnel or pore
    • Connects cytoplasm of one cell to another
    • Allows rapid communication between cells
  35. How is an ET polar?
    • There is an apical (free) surface and a basal surface
    • Basal surface sits on basement membrane and attaches to underlying CT. The membrane is made by both ET and CT
  36. What does it mean when a tissue is avascular?
    No blood supply becasue cells are so tightly packed
  37. How does an avascular tissue get it's nutrients?
    ET is fed by underlying CT. Vascular CT metabolically supports the ET
  38. WHat does it mean to be innervated?
    Has nerves
  39. Why are epithelial tissues the first to "get cancer"
    • ET tissues are highly regenerative. They divide very quickly because they are highly mitotic.
    • ET's are also the fastest to heal for this reason
  40. What is one layer of ET called?
    Simple
  41. What is an ET called if it has more than 1 layer?
    Stratified
  42. What is a "false layer" called?
    Pseudostratified
  43. What is a scale like ET called?
    Squamous
  44. What is a square like ET called?
    Cuboidal
  45. What is a longer than it is wide ET called?
    Columnar
  46. What is a stretched out ET called?
    Transitional
  47. What are some possible motifications for ET tissues?
    • Goblet Cells-secrete mucus
    • Cilia-sweep materials across surface
    • Microvilli-fold of plasma membrane to increase surface area. Absorbing or secreting
  48. Simple Squamous ET fxn
    • Thinnest possible ET
    • Rapid diffusion/osmosis or filtration
  49. Simple squamous examples
    • Alveoli in lungs
    • Lining all blood vessels lining the lumen
    • Artery and veins
  50. What are the special types of simple squamous ET?
    • Endothelium-lining blood vessels
    • Endocardium-lining the heart
    • Mesothelium-inserous membrane ?
  51. Simple cuboidal ET fxn
    Active transport-absorption or secretion
  52. Simple cuboidal ET examples
    • Some kidney tubules and ducts
    • Special: can have microvilli in some kidney tubules
  53. Simple columnar ET fxn
    Active transport and somewhat stronger than cuboidal
  54. Simple columnar ET example
    • Lining hte stomach-no modifications
    • Special: In small intesting they can have microvilli and goblet cells
    • Cilia in uterine tubes
  55. Stratified squamous ET fxn
    • Protection from friction.
    • Cells are dead at free surface
  56. Stratified squamous ET examples
    • Lining the mouth
    • Down the esophagus
    • Lining the vagina
    • Special: Keratinized (apical cells full of keratin-waterproof)
    • In epidermis keratin is tough
  57. Transitional ET fxn
    Allow distension without tearing
  58. Transitional ET examples
    • Urinary bladder
    • Ureters
    • Special-NONE
    • Nuclei at apical surface always look healthy-not dead
  59. Pseudostratified columnar ET fxn
    Protection
  60. Pseudostratified columnar ET examples
    • Vas defrens
    • Special: stereocilia in epididymis
  61. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar ET with goblet cells examples
    • Upper respiratory tract-trachea
    • Nuclei are at multiple levels. If it's not squamous or transitional than it's this one!
  62. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar ET with goblet cells fxn
    Warm, humidify, and filter inhaled air
  63. Glandular ET fxn
    • Specialized for secretion
    • Develops by invagination
  64. what are the 2 types of glandular ET?
    • Endocrine Gland
    • Exocrine Gland
  65. What is the fxn of endocrine glands?
    • Secretes hormones into the blood stream
    • Chemical messengers
  66. What is the fxn of exocrine glands?
    Secretes product through a duct to free surface
  67. Examples of exocrine glands
    • Sweat glands
    • Salivary glands
    • Mammary glands
  68. Exocrine glands can be unicellular or mutlicellular. What are the differences between them?
    • Unicellular-goblet cells (mucin makes mucus)
    • Multicellular are classified by type of secreton (3 Types)
  69. What are the 3 types of multicellular exocrine glands?
    • 1.Merocryn secretion: uses exocytosis
    • Ex: salivary glands (saliva)
    • 2. Holocrine secretion (Whole Cell) Whole cell fills with product than pinches off
    • Ex: Sebaceous gland (sebum) oil that covers the skin
    • 3. Apocrine secretion-apical portion pinches off of cell
    • Ex: Mammary glands-milk
  70. What is the fxn of Merocryn secretion? What is an example of this?
    • Uses exocytosis
    • Ex: salivary glands (saliva)
  71. What is the fxn of holocrine secretion? Example?
    • Whole cell fills with product than pinches off
    • Ex: Sebaceous gland (sebum) Oil that covers the skin
  72. What is the fxn. of apocrine secretion? Example?
    • Apical portion pinches off of cell
    • Ex: Mammary glands (milk)
  73. What is the fxn. of the plasma membrane?
    • Forms the outer, limiting barrier separating the internal contents of the cell from the external environment
    • Phospholipid bilayer containing cholesterol and proteins and some are carbs.
    • Contains receptors for communication. Forms intercellular connections. Regulates material movement into and out of the cell
  74. What is the xn. of the cytoplasm?
    • Site of metabolic processes of the cell
    • Stores nutrients and dissolved solutes
  75. What is the fxn. of the cytosol?
    • Provides support for organelles
    • Serves as viscous medium through which difusion occurs
  76. What is the fxn. of organelles?
    Carry out specific metabolic activites of the cell
  77. What is the fxn. of the nucleus?
    • Acts as control center
    • Controls all genetic information (DNA)
    • Site of ribosome subunit assembly
  78. What is the fxn. of the nucleanr envelope?
    Pores in envelope regulate exchange of materials within the cytoplasm
  79. What is the fxn. of the nucleolus?
    Synthesizes rRNA and assembles ribosomes in the nucleus
  80. What is the fxn. of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
    • Synthesizes lipids
    • metabolizes carbs
    • Detoxifies drugs and alcohol
  81. What is the fxn. off the rough ER?
    • Synthesizes proteins for secretion, new proteins for the plasma membrane and lysosomal enzymes
    • Transports and stores molecules
  82. What is the fxn. of the golgi apparatus?
    Modifies, packages, and sorts newly synthesized proteins for secretion, inclusion  in new plasma membrane or lysosomal enzyme synthesis
  83. What is the fxn. of lysosomes?
    • Digest materials or microbes ingested by the cell
    • Remove old/damaged organelles
    • Self-destruct (autolyze)
  84. What is the fxn. of the mitochondria?
    • Synthesize most ATP during cellular respiration
    • "Powerhouses of cells" Nick hates this term!
  85. What is the structure of the plasma membrane?
    Phospholipid bilayer containing cholesterol and proteins (integral and peripheral) and some carbohydrates (externally)
  86. What is the structure of the cytoplasm?
    Contains cytosol, a viscous fluid and inclusions and organelles
  87. What is the structure of the nucleus?
    • Surrounded by a double membrane nuclear envelope (each membrane is a phospholipid bilayer)
    • Contains nucleolus and chromatin
  88. What is the structure of the nucleolus?
    Spherical, dark staining, dense, granular region in the nucleus
  89. What is the structure of chromatin?
    Filamentous association of DNA and histone proteins
  90. What is the structure of ribosomes?
    • Dense cytoplasmic granules with two subunits (large and small)
    • May be free in cytoplasm (free ribosomes) or bound to rough ER (Fixed ribosomes)
  91. What is the fxn. of ribosomes?
    • Synthesize proteins for:
    • 1. use in the cell (free ribosomes)
    • 2. Secretion, incorporation into plasma membrane, or lysosomes (fixed ribosomes)
  92. What is the structure of the rough ER?
    • Flattened, intercellular network of membrane sacs called cisternae
    • Ribosomes attached on cytoplasmic surface
  93. What is the structure of the smooth ER?
    • Interconnected network of membrane tubules and vesicles
    • no ribosomes
  94. What is the structure of the golgi complex?
    Stacked series of flattened smooth membrane sacs with associated shuttle vessicles
  95. What is the structure the mitochondria?
    • Double membrane structures with cristae.
    • Fluid matrix contents at center
  96. What is the structure of lysosomes?
    Membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes
  97. What are some basic structures of CT?
    • Developed from embryonic tissue-mesenchyme
    • Never face a free surface
    • Vascularization varies
    • Innervated (mostly)
    • Cells are more widely spaced in matrix
    • Few cell jxns.
    • Ground substance
    • Protein fibers
  98. What are the 3 structural components of CT?
    • Cells
    • Ground substance
    • Protein fibers
  99. What are the fxns. of CT?
    • Variable!
    • Connection
    • Support-Physical (holding body together) and metabolic
    • Etc...
  100. What are the different ground substance types?
    • 1. Fluid
    • 2. Gelatinous
    • 3. Solid
  101. What is the structure of fluid ground substance?
    • Water and dissolved solutes
    • AKA blood plasma
  102. What is the structure of gelatinous ground substance?
    • water with dissolved solutes (fluid gs) and large molecules like:
    • -GAGs-hydrophillic and large. Traps water and makes gel
    • -Glycoproteins-act like glue. Something for cells and fibers to adhere to. Provides traction for movement
  103. What is the structure of solid ground substance?
    • Gel gs plus minerals
    • -Maximizes strength
    • -Calcium salts
    • Bone is the only thing with solid ground substance
  104. What are the different classifications of CT?
    • 1. Fluid
    • 2. Supporting
    • 3. CT Proper
  105. Give 2 examples of fluid CTs
    Blood and lymph
  106. What is fluid CT composed of?
    Fluid ground substance
  107. Give 2 examples of supporting CT
    • Makes up your skeleton
    • Cartilage (composed of gel ground substance)
    • Bone tissue (composed of solid ground substance)
  108. What is CT Proper CT composed of?
    Has gelatinous CT
  109. What are the different fiber types in CT?
    • 1. Collagen Fibers
    • 2. Elastic Fibers
    • 3. Reticular Fibers
  110. Describe collagen fibers?
    • strongest and most prevalent
    • "White fibers"
    • Pink and wavy bundles on the microscope
  111. Describe elastic fibers?
    • Thinner and somewhat branched
    • Not as strong as collagen
    • These can stretch and recoil
  112. Describe reticular fibers
    • "Network"
    • Thinnest and highly branched
    • Fxn. Form a network called stroma-forms a framework for suspending cells
    • Usually found where fluid flows
    • Requires a special stain
  113. If a cell ends in the word "blast", what does that mean?
    It is an immature cell and it secretes something
  114. If a cell ends in the word "cyte", what does that mean?
    It is a mature cell
  115. What are the resident CT cells?
    • 1. Fibroblasts
    • 2. Adipocyte
    • 3. Fixed Macrophage
  116. What is the fxn. of fibroblasts?
    • Most abundant
    • Make fiber. Need these to repair
    • Make ground substance, proteins, and fibers
    • Make scars
    • Can mature to become fibrocytes-these maintain tissues
  117. What is the fxn. of adipocytes?
    • Fat cells
    • Store a lipid droplet
    • *Peripheral nucleus
    • Energy and insulation
  118. What is the fxn. of fixed macrophages?
    • "Big eaters"
    • Phagocytosis
    • Phagocytize pathogens and damaged tissue
    • Clean up crew
    • Attract other macrophages for back up
  119. What are the wandering CT cells?
    • 1. Mast Cells
    • 2. Plasma Cells
    • 3. Wandering Macrophage
    • 4. Etc.
  120. What is the fxn. of mast cells?
    • Initiate inflammatory response by releasing"
    • -Histamine-vasodilator
    • -Heparin-anticoagulant (stops blood from clotting)
    • Cytoplasm looks grainy under the microscope. These are vessicles filled with product
  121. What is the fxn. of plasma cells?
    • Derived from WBCs
    • Make and secrete antibodies-antibodies attach to an antigen
    • Nucleus has a wagon wheel shape under microscope because chromatin pattern. There is an empty space where the golgi body is to package Abs. This is called the golgi shadow
  122. What is the fxn. of wandering macrophages?
    Phagocytize pathogens and damaged tissues
  123. What are the different types of CT Proper?
    Loose and Dense
  124. What are the different types of loose CT proper?
    • Ground substance and cells is greater than fiber
    • 1. Areolar CT
    • 2. Adipose CT
    • 3. Reticular CT
  125. What is the structure and fxn. of areolar CT? Give 2 examples of where you would find it.
    • Makes a delicate web like packing material
    • Fxn. usually filling spaces and binding. Metabolic support of ET
    • Ex: Papillary layer of dermis and hypodermis
  126. What is the structure and fxn. of adipose CT? Give 2 examples where you would find it.
    • Fxn: Energy storage, insulation, cushioning
    • Ex: Hypodermis, perirenal fat (kidneys)
    • Compare this to glandular ET. glandular has ducts though!
  127. What is the structure and fxn. of reticular CT? Give 2 examples where you would find it.
    • Forms stroma and requires special stain
    • Fxn: Suspend cells often for filtration
    • Ex: Lymph node and spleen
  128. What are the different dense CTs?
    • Fibers are greater than cells and ground substance
    • Poorly vascularized
    • 1. Dense regular
    • 2. Dense Irregular
    • 3. Elastic
  129. What is the difference between loose CT and dense CT?
    • Loose CT has more ground substance and cells compared to fibers while dense CT has more fibers than it does ground substance and cells
    • Loose CT is well vascularized which makes these tissues easier to heal compared to a poorly vascularized dense CT
  130. What is the structure and fxn. of dense regular CT? Give 2 examples where you would find it.
    • Collagen fibers run parallel
    • Fxn: Resist pull in ONE direction
    • Ex: tendons (attach muscle to bone) and ligaments (bone to bone)
    • Poor blood supply-slower to heal
  131. What is the structure and fxn. of dense irregular CT? Give 2 examples where you would find it.
    • Collagen runs in many directions
    • Fxn: Resist pull in multiple directions
    • Ex: Reticular layer of dermis and periosteum (around bone)
  132. What is the structure and fxn. of elastic CT? Give 2 examples where you would find it.
    • Lots of elastic and collagen fibers
    • Fxn: Recoil after deformation
    • Ex: Aorta wall and vocal cords
  133. What will you find in loose areolar CT?
    • Fibroblasts
    • Mast cells
    • Plasma Cells
    • Elastic fibers
    • Collagenous fibers
  134. What will you find in Adipose connective tissue?
    • Adipocytes
    • Collagenous fibers
  135. What will you find in Reticular connective tissue?
    Reticular fibers
  136. What will you find in dense regular CT?
    • Fibrocytes
    • Collagenous fibers
  137. What will you find in dense irregular CT?
    Collagenous fibers
  138. What will you find in elastic CT?
    Elastic fibers
  139. What specific type of tissue is this and where would you find it?

    • Adipose CT
    • Hypodermis and perirenal fat (kidneys)
  140. What specific tissue type is this and where would you find it?
    • Dense irregular CT
    • Reticular layer of dermis and periosteum (around bone)
  141. What is the fxn. of this tissue type?
    Energy storage, insulation and cushioning
  142. What is the fxn. of this tissue type?
    • Dense irregular CT
    • Resists pull in multiple directions
  143. What specific tissue type is this and where would you find it?
    • Dense regular CT
    • Tendons and ligaments
  144. What is the fxn. of this tissue type?
    To resist pull in ONE direction
  145. What specific tissue type is this and where would you find it?
    • Elastic CT
    • Aorta Wall and vocal cords
  146. What is the fxn. of this tissue type?
    • Elastic CT
    • Recoil after deformation
  147. What specific tissue type is this and where would you find it?
    • Loose areolar CT
    • Papillary layer of dermis and hypodermis
    • Surrounding nerves and vessels
  148. What is the fxn. of this tissue?
    • Loose areolar
    • Fxn: filling in spaces, binding and metabolic support of ET
  149. What specific tissue type is this and where would you find it?
    • Reticular CT
    • Lymph nodes and spleen
  150. What is the fxn. of this tissue?
    • Reticular CT
    • Suspend cells often for filtration
  151. What specific tissue types is this and where would you find it?
    • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar ET with goblet cells
    • Trachea/Upper respiratory tract
  152. What is the fxn. of this tissue type?
    • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar ET with goblet cells
    • Warm, humidify and filter inhaled air
  153. What specific tissue type is this and where would you find it?
    • Simple columnar ET
    • Stomach (no modifications), small intestine (microvilli and goblet cells) , Jejunum, Uterine Tubes (cilia)
    • "Suzy collects stickers"
  154. What is the fxn. of this tissue?
    Active transport and somewhat stronger than cuboidal
  155. What specific tissue type is this and where would you find it?
    • Simple cuboidal ET
    • Some kidney tubules and ducts
    • "Suzy cuts kids"
  156. What is the fxn. of this tissue?
    Active transport-absorption and secretion
  157. What specific tissue type is this and where would you find it?
    • Stratified squamous
    • Anywhere where there is friction-lining the mouth, esophagus and the vagina
    • "Suzy squats every evening"
  158. What is the fxn. of this tissue?
    • Straified squamous ET
    • Protection against friction. Cells are free surface are dead
  159. What specific tissue type is this and where would you find it?
    • Transitional ET
    • Urinary bladdder and ureters
    • "Tigers eat u"
  160. What is the fxn. of this tissue?
    • Transitional ET
    • Allow distension without tearing
  161. What specific tissue type is this and where would you find it?
    • Glandular ET
    • There are 2 types of glands: Endocrine (secrete hormones) and Exocrine (secretes product through a duct-Ex: sweat glands, salivary glands and mammary glands)
  162. What is the fxn. of this tissue?
    • Specialized for secretion
    • Endocrine and Exocrine glands
  163. What are the different accessories to the Integumentary system?
    • Hair
    • Nails
    • Glands
    • Sensory Receptors
    • *Hypodermis is not part of this system
  164. What are the different fxns. of the skin?
    • Protection
    • -Physical and chemical barrier
    • -Immune barrier
    • -Water loss
    • -UV
    • Temperature regulation
    • Sensation
    • Secretion
    • Vitamin D Synthesis
  165. How do we regulate our temperature?
    • Blood vessels in dermis
    • Eccrine sweat glands
  166. How do we feel sensations?
    • Sensory receptors
    • Hair
  167. How do we secrete things through our skin and what are we secreting?
    • Sweat glands
    • Phermones
    • Sebum
  168. Vitamin D Synthesis
    • Made by skin to assist with calcium absorption
    • Only made if skin is exposed to UV light
  169. What is the basic structure of the skin?
    • 2 Major Layers:
    • 1. Epidermis-ET
    • 2. Dermis-CT
    • Hypodermis=SubQ layer. It is deep to the skin.
  170. What is the fxn. of the hypodermis (SubQ layer) and what is it composed of?
    • Energy storage
    • Insulation
    • Cushioning
    • Composed of adipose CT and areolar CT
  171. What are the different types of skin and how do you tell the difference?
    • Thin skin:
    • 4 layers, majority of skin, has hair
    • Thick Skin:
    • Has 5 layers, on palms of hands and soles of feet, very thick epidermis
  172. What are the different layers in the epidermis?
    • 1. Stratum basale
    • 2. Stratum spinosum
    • 3. Stratum granulosm
    • 4. Stratum lucidum
    • 5. Stratum corneum
  173. Describe stratum basale
    • 1st layer closest to the basement membrane.
    • One layer of cells
    • Highly mitotic keratinocytes-these get pushed up or down
    • Regenerative layer
  174. Describe stratum spinosum
    • "Spiney Layer"
    • Keratinocytes have lots of desmosomes to resist stretch
  175. Describe stratum granulosum
    • "Grainy"
    • 3rd layer from BM
    • Cells begin to fill with keratin
  176. Describe stratum lucidum
    • "Light"
    • Only in thick skin
  177. Describe stratum corneum
    • Closest layer to free surface
    • Dead keratinocytes slough off
    • Takes 2-4 weeks to from from basale to corneum
  178. Learn this :)
  179. What are the different types of epidermis cells?
    • 1. Keratinocytes
    • 2. Melanocytes
    • 3. Langerhans Cells
    • 4. Merkel Cell
  180. What is the fxn. of keratinocytes?
    • 90% of cells
    • Protection. Waterproof barrier
  181. What is the fxn. melanocytes?
    • produce melanin=pigment which is passed to keratinocytes so they can protect their DNA from UV radiation
    • Natural protectant
    • Located in stratum basale
  182. What is the fxn. of langerhans cells?
    • Phagocytes-Immune cells
    • PHagocytize bacteria and cancer cells
    • Easily damaged by UV radiation
    • Found in stratum spinosum
  183. What is the fxn. of Merkel cells?
    • Tactile cells
    • Sense fine touch
    • In stratum basale
    • Stimulates merkel disc which is part of a neuron
  184. What are the different types of skin cancers and where do they form?
    • 1. Basal cell carcinoma
    • -in stratum basale
    • 2. Squamous cell carcinoma
    • -in stratum spinosum
    • 3. Melanoma
    • -in melanocytes-spreads quickly 
  185. What are the diffent layers of the dermis?
    • 1. Papillary layer
    • 2. Reticular layer
  186. What is the fxn. Of the papillary layer in the dermis?
    • "nipples"
    • Made of dermal papillae
    • Increases surface area for metabolic support 
    • Allows epidermis and dermis to lock together
  187. What is the structure of the papillary layer and what will you find in it?
    • Areolar CT
    • rows are called dermal ridges. these push up to form friction ridges on surface of thick skin
    • Lots of capillaries (metabolic support and temperature regulation)
    • Free nerve endings-sense pain, temperature. Extend into epidermis 
    • Meissners corpuscle-sense touch * look like a tornado. Up by papillary layer
  188. what is the reticular layer composed of and what will you find there?
    • Dense irregular CT
    • Lots of collagen and elastic fibers
    • Pacinian corpuscle 
    • Ruffini corpuscle
    • Lots of blood vessels
    • Different glands
    • Hair follicles in thin skin 
  189. What is the fxn. Of the pacinian corpuscle?
    • Look like sliced onions
    • Sense deep pressure and vibration 
    • Can be found in hypodermis
  190. What is the fxn. Of the Ruffini corpuscle?
    • Sense distortion
    • Look like bonsai tree
  191. What are the epidermal derivatives?
    • Located in dermis but cells come from stratum basale of epidermis
    • Hair
    • Nails
    • Glands
  192. What is the fxn. Of the hair?
    • Temperature regulation
    • UV  protection 
    • Sexual recognition
    • Distribute phermones
    • Filtration (nose and ear) keep stuff out
    • Sensation 
  193. What is the structure of hair?
    • Column of dead keratinocytes covered by a cuticle
    • House in follicle-one hair per follicle
    • Follicle surrounds root vs shaft
    • Hair papillae at base of follicle
    • Capillaries and free nerve endings
    • Matrix-dividing cells
    • Arector pilli muscle-made of muscle tissue and unconsciously controlled
  194. What are the different types of glands found in the skin?
    • 1. Sebaceous
    • 2. Eccrine sweat glands
    • 3. Apocrine sweat glands 
  195. What is the function of sebaceous glands and where are they located?
    • Always associated with follicles
    • Secrete sebum into follicle 
    • Moisturize skin and hair 
    • Fight against pathogens 
    • Use holocrine secretion 
    • This is what caused acne 
    • Look like fish eggs
  196. What is the function of eccrine glands and where are they located?
    • Secrete sweet sweat directly to surface of skin
    • Sweat will evaporate then cool you down-evaporative cooling
    • Located all over thick and thin skin
    • Have some antibacterial properties
    • Small lumen
  197. What is the function of apocrine glands and where are they located?
    • Secrete stinky sweat-more lipids and proteins make it stinky
    • Found only in hair follicles only in places with puberty hair
    • Function is to distribute pheromones
    • Not active until puberty
    • Big lumen
  198. What is cytology?
    Study of cells
  199. What is the study of tissues called?
    Histology
  200. What is it called when we study organ system by organ system?
    Systemic Anatomy
  201. What are teh 5 characteristics of the human body plan?
    • 1. Symmetry-bilateral
    • 2. Repeating  segmentation 
    • 3. Tube within a tube design
    • 4. Dorsal hollow nerve cord-brain and spinal cord
    • 5. Vertebral column (back bone)
  202. What domain are we in?
    Eukarya
  203. What kingdom are we in?
    Animalia
  204. What phylum are we in?
    Chordata. Have to have a dorsal hollow nerve cord to be in this group
  205. What sub phylum are we in?
    vertebrata (back bone)
  206. What class are we in?
    Mamalia
  207. What order are we in?
    primates
  208. What family are we in?
    Hominidae
  209. What species are we in?
    Homo sapiens
  210. What are the different major types of tissues?
    ET, CT, MT, NT
  211. What is the fxn. of muscle tissue?
    Ability to contract
  212. What is the fxn. of epithelial tissues?
    • Cover surfaces
    • Line cavities
    • Glands
  213. What is the fxn. of connective tissue?
    Most prominent and most diverse in fxn
  214. What is the fxn. of nervous tissue?
    Initiate electrical impulses
  215. What are the general structures of ETs
    • Cells are tightly packed with jxns.
    • Polarity-apical and basal sides
    • Avascular
    • Innervated
    • Highly regenerative
  216. What type of secretion do salivary glands use?
    Merocryn secretion-exocytosis
  217. What type of secretion do sebaceaous glands use?
    holocrine secretion
  218. What type of secretion do mammary glands use?
    Apocrine secretion

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