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What does it mean for two languages to be related?
- They are descended from a common linguistic ancestor
- they share common basic traist such as lexicon, morphology, syntax, and are mutually understandable to some degree.
- similar words for siilar meanings
Types of evidence that languages are related
- grammatical structure (syntax or word order)
- core vocabulary
What type of language is English?
A Germainic language (even though there are many French loanwords)
List the stages of the English language (include the dates)
- Old English: 450-1100
- Middle English: 1100-1500
- Early Modern English: 1500-1800
- Present Day English: 1800- present
necessary vocabulary of a language that applies to the basic needs of life
- word taken from another language.
- Same as a loanword
- ex. crawl is from Old Norse
study of the speech of sounds
system of speech of sounds (pronounciation)
branch of phonolgy that deals with the restrictions of possible phoneme combinations
study of a combination of stems and affixes to form words
smallest meaningful unit of a language
a word or element from which other words are formed
a bound form such as a prefix or suffix added to a base stem or root
- a word made up of two words
- ex. cupcake
content morpheme (lexical)
- morphemes that carry meaning
- ex. cat
function morpheme (grammatical)
- morphemes with less meaning
- primary purpose is to serve grammatical functions
- ex. "the"
- doesn't change the meaning or part of speech of root
- ex. I walk. He walked.
- change meaning or part of speech of root
- ex. reform, reformer
- vocabulary of a language
- linking sounds and meanings
sentence structure of a language
meaning of linguistic structures
In linguistics, the study of writing systems