AP Chapter 6 (2)
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What hormone does the Pineal Gland secrete?
What is the function of melatonin?
- 1. Establishment of the circadian rhythm.
- 2. Enhances Immune function.
- 3. Suppresses reproductive function by interfering with the activity of certain hormones.
Where is the thyroid gland located?
On the ventral surface of the trachea.
What are the hormones released by the thyroid gland?
- 1. Tetraiodothyronine (T4)
- 2. Triiodothyronine (T3)
- 3. Calcitonin
What roles do thyroid hormones play in the body?
Regulate the body's metabolic rate and are necessary for normal growth and development.
What role does calcitonin play in the body?
Regulates calcium levels in the blood.
Where are the parathyroid glands located?
On the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
What is secreted by the parathyroid gland and what is its function?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), if plays an important role in regulation of calcium levels in the blood.
What hormone is produced by the Thymus and what is its function?
Thymosin, it regulates T cell function.
In addition to hormone production, what other role does the Thymus play in the body?
It is critical for normal immune function because immune cells called T lymphocytes (T cells), which are essential for effective immune response against invading microorganisms, mature there.
Why are adrenal glands also called Suprarenal glands?
Because of their juxtaposition to the kidney.
What are the two layers of the adrenal gland?
- Adrenal Cortex
- Adrenal Medulla
What are the three layers of the adrenal cortex?
- 1. Zona glomerulos (Outer layer)
- 2. Zona Fasiculata (Middle layer)
- 3. Zona Reticularis (Inner layer)
What are the three types of adrenocorticoids?
- 1. Mineralocorticoids
- 2. Glucocorticoids
- 3. Sex hormones
What is the most commonly released Mineralocorticoid?
Where are Mineralocorticoids secreted from?
What is the function of Mineralocorticoids?
- Secreted exclusively by the Zona glomerulosa.
- Regulates sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion by the kidneys.
What is the most commonly released Glucocorticoid?
Where are Glucocorticoids secreted from?
What are the functions of Glucocorticoids?
- Secreted mainly by cells in the Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis.
- Regulates the body's response to stress; protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism; and blood glucose levels.
What is the most commonly released sex hormone?
Where are sex hormones released from?
What are the functions of sex hormones?
- Secreted by cells in the Zona Fasciculata and Zona reticularis (and by the gonads).
- Regulate reproductive function and a variety of other processes.
What type of secretory cells are found in the adrenal medulla and what do they secrete?
Chromaffin cells: secrete catecholamines. (80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine, and less than 1% dopamine)
What primarily triggers the secretion of hormones from the adrenal medulla?
The Pancreas functions as what two types of glands?
Endocrine and Exocrine
The exocrine pancreas includes what two types of cells?
What are the functions of the cells?
- Acinar cells and duct cells
- Secrete enzymes and fluid into the gastrointestinal tract.
What are the clusters of cells which make up the endocrine pancreas called?
Islets of Langerhans
What are the two major types of hormones released from the Islets of langerhans and what are they secreted by?
- Insulin : secreted by B cells (Beta Cells)
- Glucagon: secreted by A cells (Alpha Cells)
What is secreted by delta cells and what are its functions?
Somatostatin: helps regulate digestion and absorption of nutrients and may regulate secretion of other pancreatic hormones.
What is secreted by F Cells?
A pancreatic polypeptide.
What are the primary sex hormones released from the gonads of a male?
- 1. Androgens
- 2. Testosterone
- 3. Androstenedione
What are the primary sex hormones released from the gonads of a female?
What hormones are released from the placenta?
Estrogens and Progesterone
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