Exam #1 Lecture Notes

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Exam #1 Lecture Notes
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2012-09-23 20:52:06
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Baroque
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Part One
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  1. What is the emphasis in 17th century?
    Baroque. Theatricality , Drama , Space , Movement
  2. What is the 18th century emphasis?
    Color and Shadow

    It forshadows the great romantics of 19th century
  3. What was the prevailing style from the end of the 16th century and into the Rococo period?
    Baroque
  4. What was the most influential church plan order during the counter reformation?
    Plan for Il Gesu

    (Giacomo Barozzi / Da Vignola)
  5. This church plan was a revolt against mannerism and the reformation.
    Il Gesu

    Giacomo Barozzi/ Da Vignola
  6. The approach to this baroque church plan would be the universerally adopted 
    plan beyond the 17th century. After it there will mainly be only architectural variations of this theme.
    Il Gesu

    Giacomo Barozzi / Da Vignola
  7. The first definite steps in early Baroque architect were taken by this person.
    Carlo Maderno
  8. This church is the first true Baroque facade in Rome.
    Santa Susanna
  9. The break with Mannerism was fast in sculpture.

    T or F
    False
  10. This artist was the greatest living sculptor of his time. He was the undisputed king of Baroque.
    Bernini
  11. Bernini was the source of development for this style.
    Baroque
  12. No sculptor until the early 20th century escaped this artist's influence.
    Bernini
  13. More than any other artist he mobilized Baroque in a new and influential manner.
    Bernini
  14. In this sculpture Bernini transforms the traditional sculpture by twisting the body.
    David  - Early 17th
  15. This artist gives us a David with physical and psychological elements that was unprecedented,not there before.
    Bernini
  16. This work remained influential in the 18th-19th century even after Bernini fell out of favor.
    Apollo and Daphne - Early 17th
  17. Maderno sculpted eveything with awareness of texture more than any other sculpture he makes you forget his work is made of marble.
    T or F
    False - Bernini
  18. This sculptor helped Bernini with Apollo and Daphne.
    Giuliano Finelli
  19. This work was the greatest masterpiece of Bernini's life.
    Cornaro Chapel , Rome
  20. Who was the first to combine painting, sculpture, and architecture in one work ?
    Bernini of course!
  21. Bernini is the tour de force in technique.

    T or F
    True !
  22. No sculptor before _______  had attempted to incorporate light in a sculpture.
    Bernini
  23. This sculpture by Bernini incorporates light.
    Ecstasy of St. Theresa
  24. This earlier work by Bernini revitalizes portraiture.
    Portrait of Constanza Buonarelli
  25. This artist was the most saught after portrait artist.
    Bernini
  26. The "Portrait of Cardinal Scipione Borghese" is one of most remarkable portrait bust of all time.

    T or F
     
    False. Portrait of Costanza Buonarelli
  27. What is the title of the only personal portrait bust Bernini sculpted?
    Portrait of Costanza Buonarelli
  28. One of the most ourstanding portraits of any age is this bust by Bernini, next to "Portrait of Costanza Buonarelli."
    Portrait of Cardinal Scipione Borghese
  29. This work is Bernini's most shocking tomb.
    Tomb of Alexander VII - Late 17th
  30. "Baldochino" is pure Mannerist.

    T or F
    False. Its pure Baroque!
  31. This work by Bernini introduced new ideas. It had no precedant and is hard to classify; architecture or sculpture?
    Baldochino
  32. The design of St. Peter's was finished by Michelangelo.

    T or F
    False. Bernini finished it.
  33. This fountain by Bernini is the most spectacular of its day. It has tremendous influence in future fountain designs.
    Fountain of the Four Rivers - Mid 17th
  34. Bernini incorporates the very spirit of the Baroque style in this fountain.
    Triton Fountain
  35. This work by Bernini was a symbol of welcome from the church.
    Cathedra Petri
  36. In his architecture he remains relatively conservative. He planned big plans in architecture but he uses classical/tradtition orders.
    Bernini
  37. Bernini was expiremental in his architecture and traditional in his sculpture.

    T or F
    False. Just the opposite
  38. This was Bernini's largest work.
    Colonade of St. Peter's
  39. S.Maderno creates space that reaches and extends. It encloses and relates to the environment.

    T or F
    False . Bernini does
  40. This palazzo by Bernini is the most influential design.


    Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi
  41. Habacook & the Angel is one of Bernini's earlier works.

    T or F
    False. Late work
  42. Benedetto Croce, art historian and  philosopher . Bernini critic

    T or F
    True
  43. He recognized the value of sculpture but his finished work shows little evidence of that in his own work
    Bernini
  44. St. Sebastian by Bernini is inspired by Michelangelo's David.

    T or F
    False . Michelangelo's Pieta
  45. Bernini's finest works are in Turin.

    T or F
    False. Rome
  46. This artist falls out of favor with the church during the reign of Innocent X (also, in later neoclassical criticism of the Baroque). But regained pre-eminence and continued to be held in high regard by Clement IX.
    Bernini
  47. Art historian , Ruskin , said that Bernini's sculpture is morally corrupt.

    T or F
    True
  48. French Baroque is more restrained, a balanced order.

    T or F
    True
  49. Bernini has a stronger impact in Eastern Europe.

    T or F
    False. Northern Europe
  50. S. Maderno is best known for this work. It is the preeminent sculpture of what period?
    St. Cecilia . Early 17th in Rome
  51. This artist is much more classical. His work is less emotional than Bernini and directly inspired by antiquity.
    A. Algardi
  52. A. Algardi is from Rome.

    T or F
    False. Bologna
  53. His intense classicism would influence French Baraoque. He became a great friend of Nicolas Pussan.
    A. Algardi
  54. This artist was influenced by Florentine style. He was marginalized by Bernini.
    F. Mocchi
  55. This artist offers us a counter-current to Bernini in Baroque Rome.
    F. Borromini
  56. Bernini was empolyed by Carl Maderno.

    T or F
    False. F.Borromini
  57. This artist could never divorce sculpture form a narrative.
    Bernini
  58. This artist develops own personal idiom. He never hesitated to disobey traditional rules of architecture.
    F. Borromini
  59. Bernini and Borromini both worked obsessively on their work.

    T or F
    False. Just Bernini. Borromini was more relaxed in his work.
  60. Borromini had  an unorthodox/unconventional architectural style.

    T or F
    True!
  61. This artist was interested in multiplicity of curves.
    F. Barromini
  62. Bernini is constanly coming up with new ideas.

    T or F
    True
  63. This work is the first building that is entirely Borrominis.
    • S.Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
  64. Baroque is all about straight lines.

     T or F
    False! All about curves
  65. This work is F.Borromini's  masterpeice! Here his style reaches its zenith.


    • Sant'Ivodella Sapienza
    •  
  66. The push in and push out and concave facades are characteristic of this artist's style and also the baroque. He sets a pattern for architecture that many cannot emulated.
    F. Borromini (seen in Sant'Ivodella Sapienza)
  67. This artist designed the courtyard for Sant'Ivodella Sapienza.
    Della Porta
  68. This work is perhaps Pietro Da Cortona's architectural masterpiece.
    S.Maria della Pace 

  69. This artist creates lavish ensambles. You can see Barrominis influence in the push and pull.
    P. Cortona
  70. This work by P.Cortona  introduces convex curvature. It gives snese of monumetality.
    SS.Martina e Luca

  71. Many of his designs were not built but hold a specific and importrant place in Baroque architecture.
    P. Cortona
  72.  He was the heir to Borrominis style and just as unconventional.
    G. Guarini
  73. Unlike Barromini , who loved improving ,This artist is calculated and non expiremental. He intellectualizes his plans.
    G. Guarini
  74. Bernini applies Barominis undulating façade. He creates a new architect style. He is the first to apply to undulation principal to a Pallazzo Façade.

    T or F
    False! T'was Guarini
  75. This work by G.Guarini is the finest palazzo of the late 17th century.   


    Palazzo Carignano
  76. Most amazing acheivements were his domes.


    G. Guarini
  77. What were Guarini's most amazing acheivements?
    His domes
  78. Who devised new solutions for the construction of domes? A plan that derived from Islamic sources but new to Italy – one of most original inventions of this period.
    G. Guarini
  79. The three great Genii of the  Baroque Architecture style.
    Guarini , Borromini , Bernini
  80. This academy was the most significant institution of its kind.
    Bolognese Academy
  81. Cathedra Petri show us _____'s ability to pull together many materials into one work.
    Bernini
  82. This Palazzo by Bernini was the most influential palazzo design throughout the 17th century.
    Palazzo Chigi Odescalchi
  83. Bernini recognized the value of classical sculpture and it shows throughout his work.

    T or F
    False. There is little evidence.
  84. Bernini (and the Baroque in general) was interested in colossal spaces and and the very small.

    T or F
    True
  85. This is Longhena's masterpiece
    • Sta. Maria della Salute
  86. This artist had no influence in Venice , Italy in his dau. He would have influence in th 18th Century.
    Longhena
  87. This artist is the only vetian architect that comes close to Bernini
    Longhena
  88. We see central plans in Italy but not in Venice. The only exception to this is  _________________ by Longhena.
    • Sta. Maria della Salute
  89. This work may not look Baroque but is see in it's- fusion and multiplicity of its shapes – unique to Venice.   
    Sta. Maria della Salute
  90. His reform of painting didn’t develop a uniform style – not everyoine was doing the same as him . He was based in Urbino.
    Federico Barocci
  91. All three Caracci's are from this city.
    Bologna
  92. The______________ was the most significant institution of its time.
    Academy of Bologna
  93. He is most important out of the Caraccis. At end of mannerism  revived a new form of renaissance.
    Annibale Caracci
  94. __________  aimed at synthesis of Renaissance vigor. He created synthesis through emulation of renaissance artists- a method of idealzing nature – in 1580s.
    Annibale Caracci
  95. First major undertaking of Baroque painting in Rome – no one can escape its influence.
    Ceiling Fresco, Palazzo Farnese
  96. A type of illusionism in painting, achieved by means of sharp foreshortening, in which the figures and architecture seem to be high above and receding from the spectator.
    Di sotto in su
  97. Ceiling-painting without foreshortening illusionistic  effects, designed as though it is to be seen at normal eye-level.
    Quadro Riportato
  98. Annibale Caraci uses this plan for orgaznizing the Palazzo Farnese Ceiling Fresco.
    Quadro Riportato
  99. The masterpiece of the Caracci's movement.
    A. Caracci
  100.  It is best example of Baroque fresco painting ! Influential revisions
    Palazzo Farnase Ceiling Fresco
  101. Proved definitve of central ceiling compositions – important for Baroque paintings.
    Palazzo Farnese , Ceiling Fresco
  102. This frescoe stablished alter painting influence until 19th century
    Palazzo Farnese , Ceiling Fresco
  103. Interested in landscape painting for its own sake. Lays down law that would become classical or ideal approach to landscape.
    Annibale Caracci's   Landscape
  104. Established the quite classical  Baroque Bolognese style  in both Venice and Florence.
    Annibale Caracci
  105. Who was Guido Reni's greatest rival?
    Caravaggio
  106. Regarded as of greatest of all eupoean artists then.
    Guido Reni
  107. He was a pupil of Lodovico Caracci.
    Guido Reni
  108. His range of motion and gesture made his paintings successful.
    Guido Reni (Massacre of the Innocents)
  109. This artist demonstrated his knowledge of the classicaly inspired figure, escpecially in Bacchus and Ariadne.
    Guido Reni
  110. This painting is an example of Guido Reni at his best – figure always conceived with classical appeal in mind.
  111. The final bolognes painter of early Baroque.
    IL Guercino
  112. His output was small; he produced work in 20 years but influential. He was self – taught. Most important of 17th Italian artist of the Baroque period.  
    IL Guercino
  113. The artists of this style had full control of their palette- interested in full brilliance of color.
    The Bolognese
  114. This artist is the one REAL GIANT in 17th Century Italy.
    Caravaggio
  115. He herald the dawn of the Baroque style in painting. He revolutionizes European painting. There won''t be another painter that will escape his influence.
    Caravaggio
  116. Revoltinzes realism not by simple realism but psychological realism. This was a new approach to painting.
    Caravaggio
  117. He looks at whats around him, whats in reality. First artist to shock conventional people – representing religious scenes by way of everyday imagery.
    Caravaggio
  118. Bellori - important crtic of his day- sais _________ deserves great parise  who imitates nature as opposed to great painters.
    Caravaggio
  119. This artist paints a la prima – painterly approach. Most abiding contribution is his tenebrism/chiaroscuro.
    Caravagio

    • Tene- vaggio
    • Chiar-avaggio
    • Cara-oscuro
  120. His new contrast to light shocked then later fascinated  his contemporaries .
    Caravaggio
  121. These group is interested in lights and darks .
    Tenerbrists
  122. Caravaggio's use of classical elements was a major factor in creation of painters like Velasquez and Rembrandt.

    T or F
    False. His use of light
  123.  What is the major factor in creation of painters like Velasquez and Rembrandt ?
    Light (intro'd by Caravaggio)
  124. In this painting, Caravag demonstrates the greal realism in his work. He like to keep the meaning ambiguous.


    Bacchus
  125. Caravaggio's first obviously classical work. He was looking at and being inspired by antiquity but didn’t  paint in a classical manner.


    Bacchus
  126. Pentimenti ?
    Alterration in a painting visible to the naked eye
  127. This artist's forms always remain solid in his work- barely visible brushstrokes.
    Caravaggio
  128. Baroque work is full of rape , murder, and abduction scenes.

    T or F
    True
  129. Caravaggio was among first interested in still life.

    T or F
    T
  130. This painting by Caravaggio was the first Italian painting that might be considered a deliberate still life.


    Basket of Fruit
  131. Boy with Basket of Fruit by Caravaggio is the only independent still life that we know is his.

    T or F
    F  Basket of Fruit
  132. In Caravaggio's paintings we see an evolution of what ? This subject matter will become very popular through Europe.
    Still Life
  133. This painting is one of Caravaggio's  finest and most appealing genre scenes, even though it seems choreagraphed.


    The Gypsy Fortuneteller
  134. Bernini's painting have sexual undertones.

    T or F
    F  Caravaggio's
  135. This artist was the greatest opponent of the classical Bolognese school. He's not focused on idea form; Bacchus is an exception.
    Caravaggio
  136. 1. _________ = Most classicalof  Bolgnese

    2. _________ = Opposite
    • 1. Guido Reni
    • 2. Caravaggio
  137. This painting by Carvaggio is  his greatest tragic masterpiece.


    Death of The Virgin
  138. Martyrdom of S. Peter is one of the most moving creations of the 17th Century.

    T or F


    F . Death of The Virgin
  139. Entombment of Christ by Caravaggio is as compact and monumental as a piece of sculpture.

    T or F
    True!
  140. The cross in this painting is elevated with feet above head - allows Peter to look out of picture . Emphasis on Peter's faith


    Martyrdom of St Peter
  141. ____________ as first great liberating force – unidealizing rendering appealed to many younger artist .
    Caravaggio
  142. The least successful  of all Caravaggio's paintings. Twas his first public commission. There's less untiy of action gesture and place.
    • Calling of Matthew
  143. Landscape paintings in this style draw their inspiration from classical antiquity and  ancient literary themes, and present nature as harmonious, serene, and majestic.
    Classical Landscape
  144. Landscape paintings in this style turned to nature for inspiration - abandoning completely the historical scenes, religious subjects, and to a large extent portraiture.
    Romantic Landscape
  145. This artist mixed Bolognese elements with Caravaggio's style.
    Domenichino
  146. After Annibale Caracci , this artist is the most  representative of Bolognese School.
    Guido Reni !
  147. This artist is interested in landsape. He also  had influence on Nicholas Poussin.
    Domenichino
  148. He was important development of the Baroque painting style in Rome and Naples.
    Gio Lanfranco
  149. Where is Orazio Gentileschi from?
    Tuscany
  150. This painting by Artemesia shows the pyschicality of painting.


    Self-Portrait as anAllegory of Painting
  151. This painting by Titian signals new attitude towards nature and art.


    Sacred and Profane Love
  152. At the end of the 16th Century,  what were the two distinct trends in landscape painting had crystalized?
    Romantic and Classical Lanscape
  153. This artist is  looking bak to Titian , in his landscapes there are no narratives. They are organized among classical lines.  
    Annibale Carracci
  154. In both of these landscape paintings the landscape is more import than figure
    1. Flight into Egypt  - A Carraccii

    2. S. Jerome Removing Thorn from Lion's Paw - Patinir
  155. This artist dominated the course of landscape for the same 200 hundred years- just as Caravaggio dominated realism.
    A Carracci
  156. Patinir dominates classical, ideal landscape.

    T or F
    False ! A. Carracci does
  157. This artists paintings look like  real landscapes. The paintings was constructed in his studio with drawings - not plean air. His landscapes become the accepted pictoral representation of nature.
    A. Carracci
  158. Unlike A. Carracci , this artist uses a high viewpoint in his landscapes.


    Patinir
  159. The Bolognese used the figures in background. But A. Carracci moves them forward.

    T or F
    False! The Venetian used figures in background
  160. Landscape comes fully into its own in the 18th Century.

    T or F
    False! 17th C.
  161. This artist was born in Naples – went to rome.
    He is Proto-Romantic.
    Salvator Rosa
  162. What makes Salvator Rosa the antithesis of Annibale Carracci ?
    Annibale is classical in his portrayal of landscape. Salvator Rosa is romantic in his landscapes.
  163. A. Carracci's landscapes have jagged edges ; S. Rosa's have smooth contours.

    T or F
    False! Just the opposite
  164. Who was the most successful of Italian landscape painters? This artist also wrote poems and satires.
    Salvator Rosa
  165. Define quadratura. Name one example.
    • Fra Andrea Pozzo - The Glorification of S. Ignatius

    Murals depicting architectural subjects, with emphasis on strong foreshortening and perspective.
  166. This artist was the master of illusionistic ceiling painting.
    Fra Andrea Pozzo
  167. Pietro da Cortona and Bernini dominated art in Rome in the second quarter of 17th  C.

    T or F
    True !
  168.  This artist's most significant architectural work is Maria Della Pace.
    Pietro da Cortona
  169. Pietro da Cortona differentiates frescoes with this work. It is the most brilliant, illusionistic, grandest and most complete statement aesthetic of the Baroque style in painting.
    • The Glorification of theReign of Urban VIII , Palazzo Barberini


  170. The Glorification of theReign of Urban VIII marks the climax of this artist's career.
    Pietro da Cortona
  171. This artist's color source is from the Venetians. He is an Italian version of Peter Paul Rubens ; he shared Ruben's joy of life.
    Pietro da Cortona
  172. This frescoe by Pietro da Cortona is the best frescoe painting in Italy, in the beginning of the 17th C. It takes frescoe painting to its climax.
    • Rape of the Sabine Women
    •  
  173. The late Baroque found its greatest representative in this spontaneous speed painter. He was the leading decorative painter in Italy of his day.
    Luca Giordano
  174. This artist was capable of painting in so many different styles - never copying but borrowing imagery.
    Luca Giordano
  175. Guarini was the perfect example of rococo though most of works belong to 17 C.

    T or F
    False! L. Giordano
  176.  He sets stage for great 18th C painters.  He becomes first of great Italain artist to work in Spain. He had a great impact on Spanish painting. He is the prototype of the itinerant artist.
    Lucas Giordano
  177. There is no wooden sculpture in Italy.

    T or F 
    True
  178. This painting by Ribera is most popular and best known work.
    Martyrdom of S. Bartholomew
  179. Most important Spanish painting in the early 17th Century.
    • Martyrdom of S. Bartholomew
  180. Zuberan was greatly appreciated in Spain even though he worked  in Venice.

    T or F
    False! Josue Ribera
  181. Frankness and brutality is Spains greatest contribution to Eurpoean art.

    T or F
    True
  182. Ribera represents most important link between Spain and Italy.

    T or F
    True!
  183. This painting by Ribera was his most famous celebrated work. We see sympathtic side of spain in this painting.


    Boy with a Clubfoot
  184. With El Greco we see the mystical side of Spanish art but not with Ribera ; he is about realism.

    T or F
    True
  185. This Spanish painter is psychological just like caravaggio. He has elements of magic and mystery in his art.
    F. Zurbaran
  186. What are the two classifications of Spanish still life painting?
    • 1. Richer more Baroque style tied to North
    • 2. Minimalist mystical timeless style
  187. This Spanish artists was the earliest to be interested in still life.


    J. Cotan
  188. His work is most cosmopolitan and most accessible of  the Spanish artists, had vast influence on followers.
    B. Murillo
  189. This painting by B. Murillo is represenataive of religious Spanish Baroque painting.


    Immaculate Conception
  190. Diego Velazquez is the 3rd great master of the age – Supreme native master of painting in Spain.

    T or F
    True!
  191. This artist didn’t adopt characteristic Baroque rhetoric of allegorical figures (i.e. billowing curtains and clouds).
    Velasquez
  192. Goal of 17th C. realism: Used realism to capture this world.

    Goal of 19th C. realism: Bound up with a metapsychical view of the world, metapsychical use of realism

    T or F
    False! the opposite
  193. This painting by Velasquez is the first mythological painting in Spanish Baroque.


    Los Borrachos
  194. Giordano is the tower figure of Spanish Baroque.

    T or F
    False! Velasquez
  195. In this painting by Velasquez there is no political or religious significance ; it has sympathy for ordinary people.


    The Water Seller of Seville
  196. His pyschological power of observation makes him the greatest Spanish painter of the century. He is considered the father of Modern painting.
    Velasquez
  197. This work by Velasquez is the first proactive female nude.


    The Toilet of Venus
  198. Velasquez is influential on avante-garde painting in the 19th C.

    T or F
    True!

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