neuro.txt

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neuro.txt
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2012-08-22 01:59:34
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Neuroscience
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neuroscience exam Medschool
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  1. Nerve fibers that form medial lemniscus include axons from?
    Nucleus gracilis, nucleus cuneatus
  2. Second order neuron of dorsal column tract – medial lemniscus pathway lies in?
    Tubercle gracilis, tubercle cuneatus
  3. Decussation of dorsal column tracts is called?
    great sensory decussation / internal arcuate fibers
  4. Dorsal column tracts decussate at the level of
    upper medulla
  5. Continuity of dorsal grey column of the spinal cord is interrupted in the medulla oblongata by
    Internal arcuate fibers
  6. Pain and temperature are most closely associated with
    Lateral spinothalamic tract
  7. Crude touch (light touch) and pressure are closely associated with ---
    ventral spinothalamic tract
  8. Anterior spinothalamic tract carries sensations of crude touch (light touch) and pressure
    lateral spinothalamic tract carries sensation of pain and temperature
  9. Spinotectal tract connects the spinal grey matter to the
    superior colliculus. It is a crossed tract.
  10. carries impulses that regulate reflex movements of the head and eye in response to stimulation of some parts of the body.
    spinotectal tract
  11. Unconscious muscle joint sense is carried by
    Anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
  12. Deep touch and pressure, tactile localization, tactile discrimination, Stereognosis, sense of position, sense of vibration sensations are closely associated with
    dorsal column column tracs, fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus, medial lemniscus, internal arcuate fibers
  13. Stereognosis would be most closely associated with
    Fasciculus cuneatus, fasciculus gracilis / dorsal column tracts / medial lemniscus, internal arcuate fibers, sensory decussation (decussation of medial lemniscus, lemniscal decussation)
  14. The medial lemniscus (and lateral and ventral spinothalamic tracts) runs upwards through the medulla, pons and midbrain to end in the
    thalamus (ventral posterolateral nucleus).
  15. First order sensory neurons for dorsal column tracts is
    (central processes of) pseudounipolar neuron in dorsal root ganglion of spinal nerves
  16. Which of the following is most closely associated with nucleus dorsalis?
    Muscle spindle and tendon organ; dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts; cerebellum
  17. Spinocerebelar tracts would most closely associated with
    Nucleus dorsalis (Clarke’s column)
  18. Spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve would be most closely associated with
    Substantia gelatinosa
  19. Nerve fibers that form anterior spinocerebellar tract; dorsal spinocerebellar tract include axons from
    Nucleus dorsalis / Clark’s column (2nd order neurons)
  20. Continuity of anterior grey horns of the spinal cord is interrupted in the medulla oblongata by
    Pyramidal decussation
  21. Pyramidal decussation is at the level of
    lower medulla
  22. Rapid skilled voluntary movement is performed (controlled) by
    Lateral corticospinal tract
  23. The tract that is facilitatory to flexor muscles include
    Corticospinal tract, rubrospinal tract
  24. The tract that is facilitatory to extensor muscle include
    Vestibulospinal tract
  25. The tract that is inhibitory to flexor muscle include
    Vestibulospinal tract
  26. The tract that is inhibitory to extensor muscle include
    Corticospinal tract
  27. Most corticospinal neurons synapse with internuncial neurons, which in turn synapse with
    alpha motor neurons and some gamma motor neurons
  28. The corticospinal tract confers speed alertness to voluntary movements. Thus this helps in performing
    rapid skilled movements. This tract is said to be facilitatory for flexors and inhibitory for extensors
  29. Uncrossed pyramidal tract fibers descend
    In the ventral funiculus of the spinal cord
  30. Ventral part of the central grey matter of the midbrain at the level of superior colliculus is closely related to
    Oculomotor nucleus, Parasympathetic Edinger Westphal nucleus
  31. Ventral part of the central grey matter of the midbrain at the level of inferior colliculus is closely related to
    Trochlear nucleus
  32. Middle two-thirds of the crus cerebri in the midbrain is related to
    Corticospinal fibers, corticobulbar fibers
  33. Lateral one-sixth of the crus cerebri in the midbrain is related to
    parieto-pontine, temporopontine and occipito-pontine fibers
  34. Medial one-sixth of the crus cerebri in the midbrain is related to
    fronto-pontine fibers
  35. Red nucleus Is located in the tegmentum of the midbrain at the level of
    superior colliculus
  36. Rubrospinal tract is given off from
    red nucleus
  37. The decussatuion of the rubrospinal tract is called
    ventral tegmental decussation
  38. Pretectal nucleus is located
    cranial and lateral to the superior colliculus
  39. Third order sensory neurons located in the thalamus give off axons that pass to reach the somatosensory areas of the cerebral cortex through
    Internal capsule and Corona radiata
  40. Tectospinal tract arises from the
    superior colliculus (midbrain).
  41. The crossing fibers form the dorsal tegmental decussation at the level of
    superior colliculus
  42. Vestibulospinal Tract originates from the lateral vestibular nucleus,
    uncrossed; This tract is an important efferent path for equilibrium
  43. Labrynthine artery is a branch of
    Basilar artery
  44. Which is most closely associated with sympathetic trunk?
    Postganglionic sympathetic neuron; lateral horn neurons in the spinal cord at T 1 to L2
  45. Which of the following is most closely associated with sympathetic trunk?
    Postganglionic sympathetic neuron
  46. Which of the following is most closely associated with nucleus dorsalis?
    Muscle spindle and tendon organ
  47. Spinocerebelar tract would most closely associated with
    Nucleus dorsalis (Clarke’s column)
  48. Spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve would be most closely associated with
    Substantia gelatinosa
  49. Stereognosis would be most closely associated with
    Fasciculus cuneatus
  50. Which of the following contains preganglionic sympathetic neurons?
    Thoracic spinal cord
  51. The dorsal spinocerebellar tract is most closely associated with
    inferior cerebellar peduncle , nucleus dorsalis, pseudounipolar neurons in Dorsal root ganglion
  52. Sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve is
    the longest occupying almost the whole length of the brain stem
  53. The superior cervical sympathetic ganglion supply
    post ganglionic sympathetic fibers to the eye, all salivary glands and also heart.
  54. If superior cervical sympathetic ganglion is damaged the normal functions of these organs will be interrupted
    Proper eye movements, and eye functions, salivary secretion will be interrupted.
  55. Autonomic N system has:
    2-neuron path to target (pre- and postganglionic neurons)
  56. Somatic N system has :
    1-neuron path to target (lower motor neurons)
  57. The parasympathetic part aims at conserving and storing energy, for example,
    in the promotion of digestion
  58. Parasympathetic: the absorption of food by
    increasing the secretions of the glands of the gastrointestinal tract and stimulating peristalsis.
  59. The sympathetic part of the system has a widespread action on the body as the result of the preganglionic fibers synapsing on many postganglionic neurons and the suprarenal medulla releasing the sympathetic transmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine, (Into the blood) which are distributed throughout the body through the
    bloodstream
  60. The visceral receptors include
    chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and osmoreceptors.
  61. Pain receptors are not present in viscera, and certain types of stimuli, such as lack of oxygen or stretch,
    can cause extreme pain.
  62. the sympathetic nerves
    dilate the pupils, inhibit smooth muscle of the bronchi, intestine, and bladder wall; and close the sphincters
  63. Many of the preganglionic fibers entering the lower part of the sympathetic trunk from the lower thoracic and upper two lumbar segments of the spinal cord travel caudal to synapse in
    ganglia in the lower lumbar and sacral regions.
  64. the postganglionic nerve fibers pass via
    gray rami communicantes to join the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves.
  65. Postganglionic nerve fibers may pass through
    the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk without synapsing.
  66. These myelinated fibers leave the sympathetic trunk as the
    greater splanchnic, lesser splanchnic, and lowest or least splanchnic nerves.
  67. The greater splanchnic nerve is formed from branches from the
    fifth to the ninth (5 to 9) thoracic ganglia.
  68. It descends obliquely on the sides of the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae and pierces the crus of the diaphragm to synapse with excitor cells in the
    ganglia of the celiac plexus, the renal plexus, and the suprarenal medulla.
  69. The lesser splanchnic nerve is formed from branches of the
    tenth and eleventh (10 , 11) thoracic ganglia.
  70. The lesser splanchnic nerve descends with the greater splanchnic nerve and pierces the diaphragm to join excitor cells in ganglia in the
    lower part of the celiac plexus.
  71. The lowest splanchnic nerve when present) arises from the twelfth (12) thoracic ganglion, pierces the diaphragm, and synapses with excitor neurons in the
    ganglia of the renal plexus.
  72. The splanchnic nerves, therefore, are formed of
    preganglionic fibers.
  73. The postganglionic fibers arise from the excitor cells in the peripheral plexuses and are distributed to the
    smooth muscle and glands of the viscera.
  74. These medullary cells of adrena medulla , which may be regarded as modified Sympathetic excitor neurons, are responsible for the secretion of
    epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  75. The afferent myelinated nerve fibers travel from the viscera through
    the sympathetic ganglia without synapsing.
  76. The afferent myelinated nerve fibers pass to the spinal nerve via
    white rami communicantes
  77. The afferent myelinated nerve fibers reach their cell bodies in the
    posterior root ganglion of the corresponding spinal nerve.
  78. The central axons enter the spinal cord and may form the afferent component of a local reflex arc or ascend to higher centers,
    such as the hypothalamus.
  79. Below, the two sympathetic trunks end by joining together to form a single ganglion,
    the ganglion Impar.
  80. The activities of the parasympathetic part of the autonomic system are directed toward
    conserving and restoring energy.
  81. The heart rate is slowed, pupils are constricted, peristalsis and glandular activity is increased, sphincters are opened, and the bladder wall is
    contracted.
  82. The connector nerve cells of the parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system are located in the brainstem and the sacral segments of the
    spinal cord.
  83. Those nerve cells located in the brainstem form nuclei in the following cranial nerves: oculomotor (parasympathetic or Edinger-Westphal nucleus),
    facial (superior salivatory nucleus and lacrimatory nucleus), the glossopharyngeal (inferior salivatory nucleus), and the vagus nerves (dorsal nucleus of the vagus).
  84. The axons of these connector nerve cells are myelinated and emerge from the brain within
    the cranial nerves.
  85. The sacral connector nerve cells are found in
    the gray matter of the second (2), third (3), and fourth (4) sacral segments of the spinal cord.
  86. These cells are not sufficiently numerous to form a lateral gray horn, as do the sympathetic connector neurons in
    the thoracolumbar region.
  87. The myelinated axons leave the spinal cord in the anterior nerve roots of
    the corresponding spinal nerves.
  88. They then leave the sacral nerves and form
    the pelvic splanchnic nerves.
  89. The myelinated efferent fibers of the craniosacral outflow are preganglionic and synapse in peripheral ganglia located close to
    the viscera they innervate.
  90. What is the neurotransmitter in peripheral ganglia?
    acetylcholine
  91. The cranial parasympathetic ganglia are the
    clilary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic.
  92. In certain locations, the ganglion cells are placed in nerve plexuses, such as
    the cardiac plexus, pulmonary plexus, myenteric plexus (Auerbach’s plexus, and mucosal plexus (Meissner’s plexus); the last two plexuses are associated with the gastrointestinal tract
  93. The pelvic splanchnic nerves synapse in ganglia in
    the hypogastric plexuses.
  94. Sympathetic ganglia form part of
    the sympathetic trunk or are prevertebral in position (e.g.. celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia).
  95. Parasympathetic ganglia, on the other hand, are situated
    close to or within the walls of the viscera.
  96. The synaptic transmitter that excites the postganglionic neurons in both sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia is
    acetylcholine (ACh).
  97. The action of acetylcholine in autonomic ganglia is quickly terminated by hydrolysis with
    acetylcholinesterase.
  98. The hypothalamus has a controlling influence on the autonomic nervous system and appears to integrate the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems, thus
    preserving body homeostasis
  99. Essentially, the hypothalamus should be regarded as a higher nervous center for the control of lower autonomic centers in
    the brainstem and spinal cord
  100. It should also be noted that the higher centers of the brain can abnormally influence the activities of the autonomic nervous system and induce disease such as
    cardiac palpitations (arrhythmias) and even myocardial infarction
  101. It has been shown that contractions of the smooth muscle in the gut wall can occur in the absence of the myenteric plexus, but the coordinated purposeful contractions, as seen with peristalsis and segmental movements, require the presence of a
    nerve plexus, even though this may be isolated from the central nervous system.
  102. The sympathetic part of the system has a widespread action on the body as the result of the preganglionic fibers synapsing on many postganglionic neurons and the suprarenal medulla releasing the sympathetic transmitters
    epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are distributed throughout the body through the bloodstream.
  103. The parasympathetic part of the autonomic system has a more discrete control, since the preganglionic fibers synapse on only a few postganglionic neurons and there is no comparable organ to the
    suprarenal medulla
  104. The sympathetic postganglionic endings liberate norepinephrine at most endings and acetylcholine at a few endings (e.g., sweat glands). The parasympathetic postganglionic endings liberate
    acetylcholine.
  105. The sympathetic part of the autonomic system prepares the body for emergencies and severe muscular activity, whereas the parasympathetic part
    conserves and stores energy.

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