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Recognize the four tensions between the Eastern and Western churches’ beliefs that caused the Schism of1054. For each tension, recognize the Eastern and Western churches’ beliefs. (Sect. 24, especially 24.2)
Tensions between the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom that caused theschism
- 1. Language (rites, Bible, etc.)
- 2. “Filioque Clause” (lit, “and the Son”)
- 3. The use of images in worship
- 4. The primacy of the Roman Bishop (over that of church councils)
Language(rites, Bible, etc.)
Uses Latin-text Bible Looks to popes for Biblicalinterpretation & belief(This was a highly polarizingissue between West and East) More pragmatic faith
Uses Greek-text Bible Looks to early Church Fathers forBiblical interpretation and belief More philosophical faith
Filioque Clause(“and the Son”)
Western The Holy Spirit proceeds from theFather and the Son.(They put this in the creed and thePope agreed.)
- The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Fatheronly. The Bible does not say, “and theSon.” Use of images asaids in worship
Encouraged use of images, includingstatues & icons.
- Discouraged use of images, except icons.Primacy of the Roman bishop (Pope)
The Roman bishop has primacy(authority over the church).
- Church councils have primacy.
Understandand recognize the causes and results of the Great Crusades.
The many causes were complex. A few of the main, simpler causes are:
1. Seljuk Turks - zealously attacked Christian pilgrims as they traveled over land through Turkey tothe Holy Land. The church was affronted by Turks violating Christians’ right to visit the Holy Landwhere Christ had lived and Christianity began.
2 Emperor Alexius - the Eastern Byzantine Emperor was worried that heretical, Islamic forceswould overrun Constantinople, the great Christian city. So he asked the Western Roman pope to calla crusade (even though the Eastern and Western churches had formally split in the 1054 Schism).
Results of the Crusades
1. The West’s prime objective (control of Holy Land) was not gained.
2. Great economic advantages and profit Because of the fortress ports on the Mediterranean coast, Venice and Genoa traders enjoyedincreased trade with Asia, especially the silk trade..
3. Eastern ideas flowed west with the returning crusaders — cathedral architecture was inspired bythe Eastern Christian buildings
Recognize and be able to list the stages of monastic development and the monastic vows. (Sect. 23.1.1–23.1.2)
Stages of monastic development
- 1. Hermit (anchorite) stage.
- 2. Cloister stage – community of hermits. Corporate prayer and worship.
- 3. Union stage – families of monastic orders of women or men. Each order had a certain rule ofthe order regarding lifestyle and discipline regulations (e.g., the Benedictine and Franciscanorders). They were missionaries.
- Vows – all three were required.
- 1. Poverty – to give up all rights to own any worldly possessions.
- 2. Chastity – to have no sex, marriage or children. Virginity gained one blessings in heaven.
- 3. Obedience – to surrender your will to the local monastic leader (abbot or abbess). Whateverthey deter. mine, you must do it.
Recognize aspects of the need for monastic reform and the Cluny reform movement. (Sect. 23.5)
The Need for Monastic Reform
- 23.5.1. The cyclical nature of monastic reform
- 18.104.22.168. First, the monastic order is rigorous, disciplined and focused.
- 22.214.171.124. The order grows.
- 126.96.36.199. Rules degenerate to sub-Christian morals.
- 188.8.131.52. A need for reform arises.
- 23.5.2. The “private mass” and the accumulation of monastic property
- 184.108.40.206. Started by Pope Gregory I, who invented the idea of purgatory.
- 220.127.116.11. The church allowed people to give sacrificial gifts of property or wealth to reduce their timerequired in purgatory for their unfulfilled penances in life. “Though God forgives sin, one mustdo penance in order to suffer for one’s sins.” Gifts to the church were seen as a form ofsuffering.
- 18.104.22.168. The wealthy gave much to the church in their wills so that monks would pray for them inpurgatory.
- 23.5.3. The Cluny reform movementThe most important reform movement of the Medieval Period—one of the greatest of all time.
- 22.214.171.124. William of Aquitaine
Believed the monastery needed to separate from wealthy benefactors.
- Gave lots of money so that the monastery could be independent from corruption bysecular money.
- 126.96.36.199. Berno
- An abbot who established the Cluny monastery in 909 AD that was self-supporting,dependent on no outsiders.
Sister monasteries were under its discipline and owed allegiance to it.
- Cluny monastery became a major pilgrimage site, more popular than Rome. It hadTremendous influence and power and avoided secular entanglements.
- 188.8.131.52. Organization
- 184.108.40.206. Specific Reforms
Monks must avoid secular entanglements.
Did not allow comfort or escape from the rigors of monastic life.