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  1. benefits of outpatient clinic
    • child not separated from the family
    • reduce the extent of treatment and the emotional impact of the illness
  2. how should an infant be prepared for a treatment
    • involve parents
    • include familiar object
    • soothe, distract and hug afterwards
  3. how should toddlers and preschoolers be prepared for a treatment
    • involve parents
    • offer simple explanations
    • give permission to express discomfort
    • offer one distraction at a time
    • allow for choices
    • use distraction
    • model desired behavior (i.e opening mouth)
    • hug afterwards
  4. how should a school age child be prepared for a treatment
    • let child examine equipment
    • encourage verbalization of fears
    • offer small reward after treatment
  5. how should an adolescent be prepared for a treatment
    • provide privacy
    • involve in treatment or procedure
    • explain treatment or procedure and equipment
    • suggest coping techniques
    • involve in deciding who should be in the room
  6. what are the major causes of stress for children of all ages?
    • separation
    • pain
    • fear of body intrusion
  7. at what age does separation anxiety normally occur
    • infants at 6 months 
    • most pronounced in toddlers
  8. what are the stages of separation anxiety
    • protest: verbalize sense of abandonment
    • despair: appears sad and depressed
    • denial: Denies need for parents and becomes disinterested in their visits
  9. how might a nurse misinterperet the stages of separation anxiety
    • Protest = crying = bad
    • Despair – adjusting
    • Denial – well adjusted
  10. should a parent be encouraged to "sneak out" while a child is distracted?
    no it will damage the bond of trust
  11. Four common pain assessment scales are
    • Face scale: happy and sad faces
    • poker chip scale: 4 poker chips; 0 is no pain, 4 is a lot of pain
    • visual analog scale: pain thermometer
    • descriptive word scale: child chooses word that describes pain
  12. why is elimination of a drug prolonged in infants and toddlers
    immature liver enzyme system
  13. acetaminophen
    • mild to moderate pain
    • liver failure if not dosed correctly
    • 15 mg/kg/dose
    • max of 5 doses in 24 hrs
    • toxicity can lead to liver failure
  14. maximum time a child can be given NSAIDS and dosing schedule
    • 5 days
    • 8 - 10 mg/kg every 6 hrs
  15. intramuscular injection sites
    • vastus lateralis
    • ventrogluteal
    • deltoid
  16. foods rich in iron
    • boiled egg yolk
    • liver
    • leafy greens
    • creaom of wheat
    • dried fruits
    • dry beans
    • crushed nuts
    • whole grain bread
  17. how does sexual abuse manifest itself in children
    • urinary frequency
    • excessive masturbation
    • encopresis (fecal soiling after 4 years of age)
    • severe nightmares
    • bedwetting
    • irritation or pain in the genital area
    • decrease in physical or emotional development
  18. phimosis
    narrowing of the foreskin which prevents it from retracting
  19. hypospadias
    • urethral opening on the lower shaft of the penis
    • surgically repaired before 18 months
  20. estimation of bladder capacity of a child
    age in years + 2
  21. why do girls get uti more often
    • shorter urethra
    • urethra closer to anus
    • wear close fitting nylon underwear
    • bubble baths
    • retention of urine
    • vaginitis
  22. nephrotic syndrome
    • kidney conditions distinguished by marked amounts of protein in urine, edema and hypoalbuminemia
    • child has edema around eyes and ankles that later becomes generalized
  23. nephrotic syndrome treatment
  24. can a child with nephrotic syndrome or going through immunosuppressive therapy be vaccinated or immunized
  25. signs and symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis
    • occur 1 - 3 weeks after strep infection
    • periorbital edema after waking
    • smoky brown or bloody urine
    • urine has high specific gravity
    • BUN is elevated
    • hypertension
  26. wilms' tumor
    • tumor of the kidney
    • most found before child is 3
    • found as a mass in the abdomen by doctor or parent
    • do not palpate abdomen
  27. should you palpate the abodomen of a pt with wilms' tumor
    no, may cause tumor to spread
  28. cryptorchidism
    • undescended testicle
    • common in 30% of low birth weight infants
    • if both testes involved, sterility is likely
    • doesn't affect testosterone production
  29. does cryptorchidism affect testosterone production
  30. seborrheic dermatitis (cradle cap)
    • thick yellow, oily , adherent , crustlike scales on the scalp and forehead
    • inflammation of skin that involves the sebaceous glands
    • seen in newbors, infants and at puberty
  31. cradle cap treatment
    • shampooin on regular basis
    • apply baby oil to the head in the evening and shampoo  in the morning
    • teens use dandruff control shampoo
  32. eczema triad
    • atopic dermatitis
    • asthma
    • hay fever
  33. application of ointment
    • apply after warm bath
    • stroking in the direction of hair growth
    • don't use topical steroids when a viral infection is present
Card Set:
2012-08-23 00:02:02

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