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Infectious causes of splenomegaly
- Bacterial: typhoid, endocarditis, septicaemia, abscess.
- Viral: EBV, CMV and others.
- Protozoal: malaria, toxoplasmosis.
Haematological causes of splenomegaly
- Haemolytic anaemia (congenital or acquired).
- Extramedullary haematopoiesis: thalassaemia, osteopetrosis, myelofibrosis.
Oncological causes of splenomegaly
- Malignant: Leukaemia, lymphoma, metastatic disease.
- Benign: Haemangioma, hamartoma.
Congestive causes of splenomegaly
- Cirrhosis or hepatic fibrosis.
- Hepatic, portal or splenic vein obstruction.
- Congestive heart failure.
Other causes of splenomegaly
Sickle cell disease SLE, sarcoid, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic/storage disease
Causes of hypokalaemia
- Transcellular shifts, for example, alkalosis, insulin, beta-agonists
- Renal losses, for example, diuresis, diabetic ketoacidosis after therapy, Conn's disease
- Extrarenal losses, for example, diarrhoea, nasogastric suction
- Decreased intake, for example, malnutrition, alcoholism.
U waves on ECG
Muscle abnormalities, for example, weakness, paraesthesias and hypoactive reflexes.