Geol Test 2

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cait.smith96
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16699
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Geol Test 2
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2010-04-28 22:34:17
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dehon geology
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Answers to the Second Exam
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  1. Which of the following is/are most susceptible to chemical weather by dissolution?
    A. calcite
    B. iron oxides
    C. Clay minerals
    D. Quartz
    A. calcite
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Frost wedging is the major weathering process contributing to the formation of which regolith material?
    A. mature pedalfers
    B. talus slopes
    C. C soil horizons
    D. tropical laterites
    B. talus slopes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Clay minerals, silica (SiO2), and dissolved potassium bicarbonate in the soil water are products of which process?
    A. differential mechanical weathering of micas
    B. mechanical weathering of granite and rhyolite
    C. chemical weathering of orthoclase feldspar
    D. chemical weathering of olivine and plagioclase feldspar
    C. chemical weathering of orthoclase feldspar
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. What two factors speed up rates of chemical reaction and weathering in rocks and soils?
    A. low temps; very dry
    B. warm temps; vert moist
    C. low temps; very moist
    D. high temps; very dry
    B. warm temps; very moist
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. In which area are pedocal soils mostly likely to be found?
    A. a forested rainforest in Amazon Basin of Brazil
    B. a bitterly cold, permafrost area in northern-central Siberia
    C. a forested area of the Southeastern United States
    D. a moderately dry to semiarid grassland such as the western Great Plains
    D. a moderately dry to semiarid grassland such as the western Great Plains
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The finely divided, red, brown, and yellow soil-coloring minerals originate by what process?
    A. mechanical weathering of the feldspars and micas in granite and rhyolite
    B. chemical weathering of quarts and feldspars
    C. mechanical weathering of very fine-grained, blue-grays clays
    D. precipitation of iron oxides during the chemical weathering process
    D. precipitation of iron oxides and during the chemical weathering process
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of the following statements about laterites or tropical rainforest is true?
    A. laterites, with proper management, are very suitable for commercial agriculture
    B. laterite soils are very rick in nutrients required for vigorous plant growth
    C. rainforests generate quickly following clear cutting or clearing for agriculture
    D. laterite soils readily compact and hardened when dried and exposed to sunlight
    D. laterite soils readily compact and hardened when dried and exposed to sunlight
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which one of the following is an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulder and bedrock?
    A. hydrologic cycling
    B. frost wedging
    C. eluviation
    D. oxidation
    B. frost wedging
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which of the following best describes sets of fractures in relatively fresh bedrock, such as granite, that are roughly parallel to the land surface?
    A. columnar joints
    B. hydrolytic failures
    C. sheeting fractures
    D. thermal
    C. sheeting fractures
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. under similar war, moist climatic conditions, what would basalt and gabbro generally have higher chemical weathering rates than rhyloite and granite?
    A. the plagioclase feldspar in the granite and rhyolite decompose readily to clay minerals and iron oxides.
    B. the quartz in the gabbro and basalt decomposes very quickly
    C. the potassium feldspars and quartz in the rhyolite and granite are more susceptible to cracking by frost wedging.
    D. the ferromagnesian minerals in the gabbro and basalt are subject to oxidation and chemical wreathering
    D. the ferromagnesian minerals in the gabbro and basalt are subject to oxidation and chemical weathering
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is not true?
    A. involves a major change in the mineral composition of the weathered material
    B. is important in the formation of talus slopes
    C. disintegration and decomposition of rocks and minerals at the the surface
    D. allows for faster rates of chemical weathering
    A. involves a major change in the mineral composition of the weathered material
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which one of the following statements best describes erosion?
    A. the combined process of leaching, eluviations, and mass wasting
    B. disintegration and decomposition of rocks and minerals at the surface
    C. movement of weathered rock and regolith toward the base of a slope
    D. the process by which weathered rock and mineral particles are removed from one area and transported elsewhere
    D. movement of weathered rock and regolith toward the base of a slope
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Assuming that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statements is true?
    A. water expands as it melts, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart
    B. water shrinks as it melts, causing the crack walls to be pulled closer together
    C. water expands as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart
    D. water shrinks as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be drawn closer together
    C. water expands as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. What mineral particles are the dominant coloring agent in reddish, brownish, and yellowish soils?
    A. humus and calcium carbonate
    B. soluble potassium and sodium bicarbonates
    C. dust-sized grains of iron oxides
    D. very fine-sized, silica and calcite bicarbonates
    C. dust-sized grains of iron oxides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Lateritic soils form under what climatic conditions?
    A. hot and dry as in the desert regions of North Africa and Arabia
    B. warm and moist as in the wet, tropical forest
    C. moist and temperate as in the northeastern US
    D. cool and relatively dry as in the northern Great Plains of the US
    B. warm and moist as in the wet, tropical forest
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. ____, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks.
    A. orthoclase
    B. calcite
    C. quartz
    D. biotite
    C. quartz
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Sandstone (Match the sediment with the appropriate rock name.)
    A. gravel
    B. all clay sediment
    C. sand
    D. clay and fine silt
    C. sand
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Shale (Match the sediment with the appropriate rock name.)
    A. gravel
    B. all clay sediment
    C. clay and fine silt
    D. sand
    B. all clay sediment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Mudstone (Match the sediment with the appropriate rock name.)
    A. clay and fine silt
    B. all clay sediment
    C. sand
    D. gravel
    A. clay and fine silt
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Conglomerate (Match the sediment with the appropriate rock name.)
    A. gravel
    B. sand
    C. all clay sediment
    D. clay and fine silt
    A. gravel
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which of the following best describes bedded gypsm and halite?
    A. evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks
    B. varieties of coal and peat
    C. varieties of dolostone
    D. detrital sedimentary rocks
    A. evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. ____ sandstone contains abundant feldspar, suggesting that the sand was derived by weathering and erosion of granitic bedrock.
    A. quart-rich
    B. arkosic
    C. oolitic
    D. lignitic
    B. arkosic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. What is the main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia?
    A. a breccias is well stratified; a conglomerate is poorly startified
    B. breccia clasts are angular; conglomerate clasts are rounded
    C. breccia has a compacted, clay-rich matrix; conglomerate have no matrix
    D. breccia clasts are the size of baseballs; congolmerate clasts are larger
    B. breccia clasts are angular; conglomerate clasts are rounded
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Which statement concerning sedimentary rocks is not true?
    A. they were originally deposited at depth below the bottom of the sea
    B. they may contain fossils that provide clues about ancient life forms
    C. they probably show some evidence of stratification
    D. they are composed of particles and constituents derived from weathering and erosion of other rocks.
    A. they were originally deposited at depth below the bottom of the sea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. ____ is not a common cementing agent for sandstones.
    A. quartz
    B. fluorite
    C. calcite
    D. iron oxides
    B. fluorite
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which of the following applies to the basic constituents of halite, gypsum, and sylvite?
    A. transported as dissolved ions; deposited by evaporation
    B. transported and deposited as mud-sized particles
    C. transported as detrital mud; deposited by evaporation
    D. transported as dissolved ions; deposited as detrital mud
    A. transported as dissolved ions; deposited by evaporation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Flint, chert, and jasper are microcrystalline forms of ____
    A. hematite
    B. quartz
    C. halite
    D. calcite
    B. quartz
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams?
    A. conglomerate
    B. mudstone
    C. greywacke
    D. oolitic limestone
    A. conglomerate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Detrital grains of which minerals are extremely rare in detrital sediments? Why?
    A. quartz; it is very hard and soluble
    B. feldspar; they occur only in granites
    C. clays; they are rare in soils and regoliths
    D. calcites; it is soft and relatively soluble
    D. calcites; it is soft and relatively soluble
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which of the following sedimentary features would typically be found in shales but not in sandstones?
    A. mudcracks
    B. bedding
    C. ripple marks
    D. cross stratification
    A. mudcracks
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. ____ is the most common type of chemical sedimentary rock.
    A. limestone
    B. chert
    C. quartz sandstone
    D. phosphate rock
    C. limestone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which of the following sedimentary features can each be used to determine paleocurrent directions?
    A. ripple marks and cross stratification
    B. grain size sorting and ripple marks
    C. fossils and mud cracks
    D. mud cracks and ripple marks
    A. ripple marks and cross stratification
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Coal beds originate in -
    A. deep, marine basins below wave action
    B. channels of fast-moving streams
    C. shallow lakes in a dry, desert regions
    D. freshwater costal swamps and bogs
    D. freshwater costal swamps and bogs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following forms is at the highest grade of regional metamorphism?
    a. schist
    b. hornsfel
    c. phyllite
    d. slate
    ??
  35. What platy, parallel, mineral grains are the most visual aspect of foliated metamorphic rocks?
    A. carbonates
    B. micas
    C. quartz
    D. feldspar
    B. micas
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble?
    A. calcite grains are dissolved away leaving only marble crystals
    B. clays crystallize to micas, forming a highly foliated, mica-rick rock
    C. calcite grains grow larger and increase in size
    D. limestone grains react to form quartz and feldspar
    C. calcite grains grow larger and increase in size
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Which low-grade metamorphic rock, composed of extremely fine-sized mica and other mineral grains, typically exhibits well-developed rock cleavage?
    A. quartzite
    B. schist
    C. hornsfel
    D. slate
    D. slate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. _____ is a strong, parallel alignment of coarse mice flakes and/or of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.
    A. stress streaking
    B. rock cleavage
    C. foliation
    D. marbleizing
    B. foliation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which of the following best describes the conditions of contact metamorphism?
    A. pressures are very high, the rock is deeply buried, and temperatures are raised by the Earth's internal heat
    B. heat is generated by shearing and mechanical movements along faults
    C. pressures are fairly low, the rock is in the upper part of the crust, and heat is supplied from a nearby magma body
    D. depths are fairly shallow, but temperatures and pressures are so high that the rocks begin to partially melt
    C. pressures are fairly low, the rock is in the upper part of the crust, and heat is supplied from a nearby magma body
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. ____ forms from the metamorphism of limestone or dolostone
    A. quartzite
    B. migmatite
    C. marble
    D. amphibolite
    C. marble
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. ___ is characterized by segregation of light-and dark-colored minerals into thin layers or bands.
    A. slate
    B. garnet hornfels
    C. granitic gneiss
    D. quartzite
    C. granitic gneiss
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which of the following lists the rocks in order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?
    A. slate, schist, phyllite
    B. phyllite, slate, schist
    C. schist, slate, phyllite
    D. slate, phyllite, schist
    D. slate, phyllite, schist
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. What is the major source of heat for contact metamorphism?
    A. heat from grinding and shearing on faults
    B. heat from the spontaneous decomposition of micas and feldspar
    C. deep burial and heat from the Earth's interior
    D. heat from a nearby magma body
    D. heat from a nearby magma body
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely?
    A. at shallow depths below an oceanic ridge or rift zone
    B. at shallow depths along major transform faults in the continental crust
    C. at great depths in the crust where two continents are colliding
    D. at shallow depths beneath the sea floor where water pressures are immense
    C. at great depths in the crust where two continents are colliding
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. An Unconformity is a buried -
    a. fault or fracture with older rocks above and younger rocks below
    b. surface of erosion with older strata above and younger strata below
    c. fault or fracture with younger strata above and older strata below
    d. surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below
    d. surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below
  46. The radioactive isotopes Uranium-238, Uranium-235, and Thorium-232 eventually decay to different, stable, daughter isotopes of -
    A. strontium
    B. aragon
    C. lead
    D. iron
    C. lead
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it?
    A. law of superposition
    B. theory of supersition
    C. theory of correlative deposition
    D. law or original correleation
    A. law of superposition
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. The ____ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata?
    A. law or correlative indexing
    B. principle of cross correlation
    C. principle of faunal succession
    D. law of fossil regression
    C. principle of faunal succession
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. ____ refers to the process of fossilization where the internal cavities and pores of the original organism are filled with precipitated mineral matter.
    A. carbonization
    B. impression
    C. petrification
    D. replacement
    C. petrification
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. What is the age of the earth accepted by most scientists today?
    A. 6.4 million years
    B. 4.5 billion years
    C. 6.4 billions years
    D. 4.5 million years
    B. 4.5 billion years
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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