Intro to Animal Behavior

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Intro to Animal Behavior
2012-08-28 21:14:58

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  1. Why do we need to be concerned with animal behavior?
    • may be a sign of disease
    • to restrain correctly
    • to prevent problems
    • to provide correct husbandry
    • problems cost money
    • problems may result in death of the pet
  2. Why can behavior problems result in the death of a pet?
    • owners may take the animal to the vet to euthanize
    • turn animals loose
    • take them to a shelter where they will more than likely be euthanized
  3. Do animals do things for no reason?
  4. Are most behavior problems, problems for the animal?  Who are they problems for?
    • no
    • the owner
  5. What is the number one reason why people own animals for pets?
  6. What are other reasons besides companionship that people own animals for pets?
    • health
    • assistance
    • therapy
    • working
  7. What is the organization that specializes in behavior for veterinarians?
    American College of Veterinary Behaviorists (ACVB)
  8. What are the organizations vet techs can join to become a specialist in animal behavior?
    • Academy of Veterinary Behavior Technicians (AVBT)
    • Society of Veterinary Behavior Technicans (SVBT)
  9. Which vet tech organization for animal behavior requires a certification?
  10. Which vet tech organization for animal behavior is open to everyone, even students?
  11. What is the organization for obedience training for dogs?
    Association of Professional Dog Obedience Trainers
  12. What society is not just limited to DVMs but people with master degrees and PhD's can join?
    American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior (AVSAB)
  13. What society certifies animal behaviorists?
    Animal Behavior Society (ABS)
  14. How many veterinary schools have behaviorists on staff?
    8 out of the 28 schools
  15. Which schools are the closest to us?
    Penn and NC State
  16. Many behavior problems are...
    • underdiagnosed
    • inadequately treated
    • left to non-DVMs to resolve (obedience trainers)
  17. Why are dogs usually given up?
    • moving
    • landlord issues
    • cost
    • no time
    • inadequate facilities
    • too many pets
    • pet illness
    • personal problems
    • biting
    • no home for littermates
  18. Why are cats usually given up?
    • too many in the house
    • allergies
    • moving
    • cost
    • landlord issues
    • no home for littermates
    • house soiling
    • personal problems
    • pet illness
    • inadequate facilities
  19. What are specific complaints people have about the behavior of their pets?
    • aggression
    • house soiling
    • destructive inside
    • escapes
    • too active
    • too vocal
    • not friendly
    • afraid
    • jumps on people
    • pesters to go out
    • chases people and cars
    • coprophagy
    • pica
    • destructive outside
    • wants attention
  20. Dogs are less likely to be given up if they have had _____ and _____.
    • veterinary care
    • obedience training
  21. Cats are less likely to be given up if they have had _____ and _____.
    • veterinary care
    • owner reads more about normal animal behavior
  22. What is behavior?
    the way an animal responds to stimuli in its environment
  23. Is a stimulus needed to elicit any behavior?
  24. What is a stimulus?
    any change in an animal's internal or external environment
  25. What is behaviorism?
    • a branch of psychology
    • stresses importance of learning behavior
  26. What is ethology?
    • study of animal behavior in the wild
    • stresses instinct
  27. What are the 2 expressions of behavior?  Which one do we have more control over?
    • genetics and envirnoment
    • environment
  28. What is the physiology behind animal behavior?
    animal's receptors must be sensitive to the stimulus and it must exceed the animals threshold
  29. What are the different receptors that affect behavior?
    • touch
    • pressure
    • sound
    • sight
    • taste
    • odor
    • temperature
  30. Describe the route through the body that the animal picks up the stimuli.
    • receptor picks up stimulus
    • impluse is sent to CNS
    • info is integrated in the cerebrum
    • impulses from the cerebrum to the hypothalamus or muscles
    • a behavior is then seen
  31. What are neurotransmitters?
    chemicals which carry impulses fromo neuron to neuron within the CNS
  32. What are the different types of neurotransmitters?
    • Dopamine
    • Serotonin
    • Acetylcholine
    • Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
    • Norepineephrine
    • Oxytocin (hormone)
  33. How does the endocrine system affect animal behavior?
    involved in sustained, cyclical behaviors, moods, and attitudes
  34. Describe the physiology of how the endocrine system affects an animals behavior.
    • Hypothalamus is part of both CNS and endocrine systems
    • sends impulse to pituitary gland (hypophysis)
    • trophic hormones from pituitary gland go to the adrenal, testes, and ovaries
  35. What are different types of communication animals exhibit for their behavior?
    • visual cues
    • olfactory cues (odor)
    • verbal cues
  36. What are some visual cues animals give us to warn us about their behavior?
    • body position
    • facial expression
    • marks in environment (urine)
  37. How may animals exhibit pain?
    • aggression
    • overgrooming
    • lack of grooming
    • inactivity
    • hiding
    • hunched posture
    • eating less or not at all
    • vocalizing
    • increased respirations
    • overdrinking
    • tooth grinding
    • self mutilation
    • regurgitation
    • vomiting
    • salivation
    • seizures
  38. What are pheromones?
    odiferous chemicals that animals release into the environment
  39. What is reproductive behavior regulated by?
    endocrine system
  40. What types of reproductive behavior does the endocrine system regulate?
    • puberty
    • estrous cycles
    • ovulation
    • breeding behavior
    • gestation length
  41. What are the two types of ovulation?
    • induced
    • spontaneous
  42. What is parturition?
    the act of giving birth
  43. What are the three stages of parturition?
    • uterine contractions
    • passage of the fetus
    • expulsion of the placenta
  44. What are the two types of neonatal behaviors?
    • altricial
    • precocial
  45. What is an altricial young?
    born very immature and depends on the mother for everything (example:  dog)
  46. What is a precocial young?
    more mobile and can walk and move around (example:  horse)
  47. What is imprinting?
    when babies learn what kind of animal it is and how to act
  48. How does stress on a neonate benefit its development?
    speeds up the development of the CNS
  49. What is a wild animals concept of space?
    • home range:  area where they travel, hunt, and search for water
    • territory:  animal will defend and mark
    • flight distance:  how close an animal will allow a human to come before running away
    • critical distance:  how close an animal will allow a human to come before attacking
  50. What are the different types of stressors in an environment?
    physical and psychological
  51. Define stress.
    the effect of physical, physiologic, or emotional factors that induce an alteration in the animals homeostasis of adaptive state
  52. Which body systems help an animal adapt to stress?
    CNS and endocrine
  53. Which nervous system is affected by acute stress?
    sympathetic nervous system
  54. What is an alarm reaction?
    acute stimulation
  55. What can chronic stimulation cause?
    exhaustion and problems
  56. What is chronic stimulation?
    continually exposed to the same stress
  57. What mediates the reaction to stress in the body?
  58. What levels in the body will increase if an animals is stressed?
  59. What is released in the body due to chronic stimulation?
    ACTH - releasing factors stimulates the pituitary and ACTH is released
  60. What are some examples of chronic stressors?
    • lack of stimulation
    • overcrowding
    • barriers to normal behavior
    • unable to escape fearful stimulus
    • unpredictable stimulation
  61. What is stress syndrome?
    • cortisol normally allows an animal to adapt to stress
    • over stimulation causes exhaustion which leads to disease, death, and behavioral effects
  62. What are some different types of behaviors animals exhibit due to being stressed?
    • anorexia
    • overactivity
    • destructive behaviors
    • inappropriate displacement
    • excessive vocalization
    • aggression
    • unexplained housesoiling
    • psychogenic problems (vomiting and diarrhea)
    • fearfulness
    • escape and/or running away
    • excessive grooming
    • self mutilation
    • sterotypies - nonfunctional repetitive behaviors (pacing)
  63. What are some signs of stress in dogs?
    • shaking
    • excessive dandruff
    • dilated pupils
    • excessive blinking
    • excessive shedding
    • loss of appetite
    • diarrhea
  64. What are some signs of stress in cats?
    • clinging
    • dilated pupils
    • excessive shedding
    • defensive vocalizations
    • listlessness (not doing anything)
    • restlessness
  65. What is biophilia?
    people need to be in contact with nature and animals in order to reach their optimal potential
  66. What medical benefits do animals give people?
    • increased survival after a heart attack
    • decreased recurrence of coronary disease, BP, stress, medical visits, anxiety, pre/post op, analgesic use in hospital
  67. What are the pyschological benefits do people with pets have?
    • reduce feelings of loneliness
    • eases times of stressful transitions
    • increases feelings of comfor, happiness, security, and self worth
    • contributes to sense of well being
  68. What social benefits do pets provide their owners?
    • provides social support and identity
    • offers extended social networks and social interactions
    • source of recreation
  69. What effects do human contact have on animals?
    • physiology
    • health
    • emotional status
    • research on many species
    • effects positive if socialized, young, and gentle
  70. What are some physiological effects do humans have on neonates?
    • increased CNS development
    • increased weight loss
    • improved immune response
    • more resistant to stress
    • learn faster
  71. What are some effects animals especially cows have when interacting with people?
    • increased milk yield
    • increased reproductive success
    • decreased pain and fear reactions
    • slows signs seen with aging
  72. What are some health effects do animals have who interact with people?
    • decreased post-surgical mortality
    • decreased severity of atherosclerotic lesions (chicken)
    • decreased death and pericarditis due to E coli (pig)
  73. What factors influence of the effects of contact with the animal?
    • quality and type of contact
    • socialization
    • genetics
  74. What must the quality and type of contact be in order for their to be a positive result?
    • gentle
    • negative effects if the contact is rough
  75. What happens if an animal is not socialized?
    will see fear and aggression
  76. How do we implicate positive contact in practice?
    gentle contact before, during, and after illness, injury and surgery