Histology - Nervous System

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Histology - Nervous System
2012-08-22 18:04:59

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  1. Polarization of Form
    Nurons have very distinct regions within the cell
  2. Perikaryon
    The cell body including the nucleous portion of the nuron
  3. Dendrites
    sensory arms
  4. Axon
    excitation arms
  5. Axon terminal
    the end of the axon that sends the impulse to the next cell
  6. Multipolar
    The classic nuron
  7. bipolar
    • Has dendrites on one end and axons on the other end of the cell body
    • used for sensory
  8. pseudounipolar
    • are bipolar during early development
    • Sensory
    • impulses passes the cell body
  9. Unipolar
    • Axons and Dendrites are found on the same stem
    • these are found in invertibrates
  10. Axon hillock
    • No Nissle bodies
    • No synapses
    • Lower threshhold than other parts of the cell
    • Sums up all incoming signals
    • increaced amount of voltagegated ion chanelles**
  11. Axosomatic synapse
    When an axon inervates on the cell body of the next nuron
  12. axodendritic
    axon is inervating on a dendrite
  13. axospinous
    inervate on the spine of the next nuron
  14. axoaxonic
    inervation on the next axon
  15. crestel violate stain
    stains RNA purpilish blue
  16. SNARs
    • soluable NSF atatchment receptors
    • aid in membrane targeting
  17. Clathrin
    involved in the recycling proceses of membranes
  18. presynaptic vesicles
    clear and dense cored
  19. Exocytosis
    • Fusion of the synaptic vesicle membrane with presynaptic membrane
    • regulated by SNARs
  20. Prorcytosis
    synaptic vesicle is andhored on top of calcum-selective channels in presynaptic membrane. when Ca2+enters a transient pore is formed and the nurotransmitter is released from there. 
  21. Postsynaptic density
    • contains a lot of cytoskeliton protiens
    • shares them with the membrane so its hard to see the clear line on a slide
  22. dentrite contain
  23. sndritic spines contain
    actin (they can move slightly)
  24. Gap junctions
    • consist of channels called connexons which are made up of connexin
    • ions travel through these pores
    • synchronizes events
  25. Dendritic Spine
    Comes off of the dendrite (so the dendrite is the extension and Dendritic Spines are the fingers)
  26. Spine aparatus
    folding in of tissue in the dendritic spine
  27. Junctional folds
    The folding of an axon into the muscle within a synaptic end plate
  28. axons what type fo structure? 
    do not have microtubule associated protien
  29. Kinesin
    in an Axon it is transproted away from the cell body (anterograde)
  30. Dyenin
    twards the cell body (retrograde)
  31. Glia functions
    • Physical support
    • Movement of metabolites
    • Some have end feet covering the blood vessels forming tight junctions > help form blood brain barrier
  32. Oligodenrocytes
    Formation and maintence of myelin in CNS
  33. Astrocytes
    • Star shaped
    • Get rid of potasium > very permiable to potasium
  34. Protoplasmic astrocytes
    • Gray matter
    • numerous, short, branching cytoplasmic processes
  35. Fibrous astrocytes
    • white matter
    • few processes, usually straight
  36. Microglia
    • Possess phagocytotic properties > involved in nuro-immune reactions *** 
    • Part of the mononuclear phagocytic system; originate from bone marrow monocyte precursor cells
    • May mediate neuroimmune reactions, such as those occurring with chronic pain
    • Small, contain elongated nuclei
    • Processes and cell body appear to be covered with spikes
  37. Ependymal cells
    • Columnar cells **
    • Lining the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord**
    • Characteristics of fluid transporting cells**1
    • Apical microvilli absorb cerebrospinal fluid
    • Basal surfaces interdigitate with astrocytic process (ependymal cells have no external lamina)
  38. Schwann cells
    • Glia in the PNS
    • 1 cell to an axon
  39. Saltatory conduction
    The jumping of AP from one node to the next
  40. Oligodendrocytes
    • mylinates the CNS
    • multiple axons
  41. Mesaxon
    The protien that holds the mylin together so it can squeeze itself around 
  42. Schmidt-latchem cleft
    some cyto gets trapped inside the folds of mylin
  43. Nissl bodies
    • grandular areas in nurons composed of RER
    • They stain because of the RNA
  44. Neurokeratin network
    The stuff left behind when mylin is fixed
  45. Myelin in the CNS
    • Mylin basic protien
    • proteolipid protein
    • myelin oligodendrocyte protein
    • oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein
  46. Myelin in the PNS
    • Myelin basic protein
    • PO protein
    • peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP-22)
  47. Myelin basic protien
    • improtant in compaction
    • formed by one gene > 7 forms
    • major immunogenic reaction > experimental allergic encephalitis > model for multiple sclerosis
  48. The Shiverer Mouse
    • An autosomal recessive trait
    • Causes tremors and convulsions
    • five of the six exons for MBP are deleted
  49. Charcot-Marie Tooth Disease
    • Imparied gaid and other deformities
    • Caused by duplication of PMP22 (to much being produced
    • Peripheral neuropathy results
    • Cycles of myelination and demyelination.
  50. Guillaine Barré Syndrome
    • Disease of the PNS
    • Large accumulation of lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells around nerve fibers
    • Large portions of the myelin sheath are damaged.
    • Muscle paralysis, loss of muscle coordination, and loss of cutaneous sensation
  51. Neuregulin 1
  52. Blood Brain Barrier
    • End Feet of Astrocytes
    • Basment Membrane
    • Endothelial cells > tight junctions
    • nothing bigger the 500Daltons gets passed
  53. slide 36
  54. Location of nurons
    • CNS outer part is nuronal, inner part is white matter
    • SC inner part is nuronal, outer is white matter
  55. Autonmic Nervous System
    • Sends information to the smooth mucles, cardiac mucles, and glandular epithelium
    • involentary
    • maintains internal inviornment
    • three divisions
    • >sympathetic > thoracolumbar
    • >parasympathtic > craniosacral
    • >Enteric > digestive system
  56. Somatic efferent nurons
    • Somatic > volentary system
    • efferetn > movement
    • one nuron coming from the CNS
  57. Autonomic Nurons
    • Autonomic > involenray
    • there is a nuron junction outside the CNS
    • The second lies within the ganglion
  58. paravertebral ganglia
    • Two trunks running along-side the CNS
    • The Autonomic Sympathetic NS make connections there for the Thoracic organs
  59. Prevertebral ganglion
    • Indivdual ganglia
    • Nurons of the Autonomic Sympathetic NS make connections there for things that inervate the abdominal aorta
    • Exeption: the adrenal gland (goes straight there)
  60. Organization of Parasympathetic Nurves
    • The Cranial nerves go to ganglia in the head
    • The splanklic nerve and the 10th facial nerve do not have ganglia > go straight to the organ (form terminal synaps in the organ) 
  61. difference between the dorsal root ganglion and the sympathetic ganglion
    dorsal root are pseudounipolar nurons > no synaptic connections > surrounded by stalite cells