EDSP 102 Ch1

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EDSP 102 Ch1
2012-08-22 19:10:24
human communication language development

Chapter One Vocab
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  1. communication
    process of sharing ideas involving a sender encoding and a receiver who deodes
  2. code
    systematic, orderly nature of language that allows speakers and listeners to express and comprehend meanings
  3. systematic
    regularities exhibited by speakers of a language that make occurances in the language predictable
  4. conventional
    notion that language must be based on shared, customary, or implicitly agreed-on patterns of behavior
  5. arbitrary
    capricious connection between words and their meanings
  6. linguistic aspects
    dimensions of grammar, semantics and pragmatics relating to the structure, meaning and use of language
  7. extralinguistic aspects
    nonlinguistic elements of communication (gestures, intonation, etc) that supplement or alter the message expressed by the words and phrases
  8. paralinguistic codes
    productions aspects such as prosody, intonation, rate, rhythm and stress that accompany the spoken message the express attitude or emotion
  9. prosody
    Production features of speech, such as intonation, stress, rate, and rhythm that provide its melodic character
  10. Suprasegmental devices
    Speech production effects, including intonation, stress, rhythm, superimposed across the linguistic segments (i.e, words and phrases) to modify their meaning
  11. proxemics
    the study of personal space in social interactions, including interpersonal communication
  12. vocal tract
    cavities and structures above the vocal folds capable of modifying the vocal tone and airflow into distinctive speech sounds
  13. articulation
    modification of the vocal tone and airstream into distinctive sounds through movement of oral structures
  14. voice
    the tone produced by vibration of the vocal folds and modified by the resonating cavities of the vocal tract
  15. phonation
    production of vocal tone in the physiological process of setting the approximated vocal folds into vibration with exhaled air
  16. resonation
    modification of the vocal tone produced through changing the shape and size of the the spaces in the vocal tract
  17. fluency
    flow of speech that is free of abnormal interruptions or disfluencies
  18. phonology
    study of the speech sounds of languages
  19. International Phonetic Alphabet
    provides universal symbols to represent all the known speech sounds used in human languages
  20. phone
    individual instance of a speech sound production notated within brackets
  21. phoneme
    conceptual family of sounds whose accoustic features are similar enough to be heard as the same speech sound, notated within slashes
  22. categorical perception
    the obervation that listeners hear classes of similar sounds within a continuous range of sounds
  23. allphones
    the individual sound variations that are still heard as a class of sounds
  24. distinctive features
    individual accoustic or articulatory characteristics that distinguish one class of phonemes from another
  25. language
    system of arbitrary verbal symbols arranged in a conventional code that evolved as a social tool to communicate ideas and influence the behavior of others
  26. dialect
    collection of consistent or systematic variations in a major language that occur in an identifiable subgroup
  27. grammar
    the collection of rules that characterize the regularities or patterns of a language
  28. morphology
    study of morphemes
  29. morpheme
    minimal, meaningful units of language
  30. free morphemes
    morphemes that can occur independently and still carry meaning
  31. bound morpheme
    subclass of morphemes that are meaningless unless attached to a free morpheme; includes derivational and inflectional morphemes
  32. derivational morpheme
    type of bound morpheme that changes the grammatical class of the free morpheme to which it is attached (e.g., teacher)
  33. inflectional morpheme
    type of bound morpheme that inflicts the word it is attached to for tense (played), plurality (cats), possession (John's) and degree (greener)
  34. syntax
    linguistic rules that describe the relationship between word orders and the meanings they express
  35. declaritive
    a major sentence type that makes a statement
  36. interrogative
    a major sentence type that asks a question
  37. negative
    major sentence type that expresses denial, rejection, or nonexistence
  38. passive sentence
    major sentence type in which the grammatical subject of the sentence is the passive recipient of the action of the verb
  39. imperative
    a major sentence type that expresses a command while omitting the sentence subject
  40. consituent structures
    the morphemes, words and phrases that contribute to an overall sentence structure
  41. hierarchial structure
    the levels of constituent structures that relate the words and phrases of a sentence to its underlying structure
  42. prescriptive grammar
    a collection of rules that purports to dictate correct grammatical structures to the speakers of a language
  43. descriptive grammar
    a set of linguistic rules that describes the regularities present in a set of utterances
  44. formal grammar
    collective set of written rules that describe the conventional regularities in a language
  45. linguistic competence
    speakers' underlying, idealized knowledge of their language system
  46. linguistic performance
    speakers' actualized production of sentences, potentially affected by memory, fatigue and distraction
  47. generative grammar
    grammar composed of a limited number of rules capable of generating an unlimited number of acceptable sentences in a language
  48. semantics
    the study of meaning in language
  49. vocabulary
    speaker's total accumulation of words understood or used in the language
  50. lexicon
    the total collecion of words and morphemes in a language
  51. semantic features
    perceptual features such as size, shape, color and so on that define conceptual class
  52. episodic memory
    cumulative set of experiences that make up an individual's understanding of a concept or event
  53. semantic memory
    individual's understanding of a words meaning, including the words and concepts they associate with that word
  54. selecion restrictions
    constraints on the words that can occur together because of the semantic features carried by each
  55. hyponymy
    semantic relationship in which the meaning of one word, the hyponym (e.g., chair) contains the meaning of another word, the superordinate (e.g., furniture)
  56. semantic (or case) relations
    relationships between objects, persons and events expressed through language
  57. pragmatics
    practical aspects of language used as a social tool, including the functions and alternations observed in social contexts
  58. functions
    the pracmatic or practical purposes served by utterances
  59. performatives
    a speech act in which the utterance itself performs the intended act, such as promising, teasing and apologizing
  60. speech act
    concept of a unit of communication involving a speaker's intention, the linguistic form of the message conveying the intention, and the listeners interpretation of the message
  61. alternation
    the variations in linguistic structure and speaking style in response to the roles and audience in a setting
  62. social context
    the nature of a setting and the status, roles, and agendas of the speakers in that setting
  63. linguistic context
    the utterances that precede and contribute to the setting responded to by a speaker
  64. direct speech act
    a speech act in which the intention is expressed directly in the grammatical form of the utterance
  65. indirect speech act
    speech act in which the speaker's intention is implied rather than expressed
  66. discourse
    series of verbal interchanges between speakers on a shared topic