EDSP 102 Ch2

Card Set Information

EDSP 102 Ch2
2012-08-22 21:05:51
structures human communication

Structural basis of Human Communication
Show Answers:

  1. central nervous system
    portion of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord
  2. peripheral nervous system
    part of the nervous system that conducts sensory and motor impulses between the body and the CNS
  3. neuron
    basic unit of the nervous system consisting of a cell body, an axon, and dendrites
  4. glial cells
    cells that support and nourish other nerve cells in the CNS
  5. nucleus
    central element in a cell body
  6. axon
    single longer filament of a neuron that carries the neural impulse away from the cell body
  7. dendrites
    branched nerve fibers that conduct impulses toward the cell body of a neuron
  8. synapse
    junction or gap where neural impulses jump from the axon of one neuron to the dendrite of another
  9. cerebrum
    the larger, most visible portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres
  10. cortex
    outer convoluted layers of dense neurons covering the cerebral hemispheres; responsible for high mental functioning
  11. gyrus
    ridges or convulutions on the cortical surface of the brain
  12. sulcus
    the narrower, more shallow grooves that occur on the convuluted cortical surface of the brain
  13. fissure
    deep furrow or valley in the convuluted surface of the cortex
  14. cerebral hemispheres
    the two halves of the cerebrum defined by the longitudinal fissure
  15. primary motor cortex
    cortical area in the precentral gyrus responsible for initiating specific, voluntary movements
  16. contralateral
    the relationship in which cortical areas responsible for motor control and sensory reception are opposite from the body areas affected
  17. Broca's area
    the motor speech area located in the lower region of the frontal lobe in the langauge dominant hemisphere
  18. primary auditory cortex
    cortical area in the temporal lobe where the sensation of sound is received
  19. auditory association area
    cortical area surrounding the primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe; responsible for interpreting the significance of sounds
  20. Wernicke's area
    cortical area in the occipital lobe where visual sensation is received
  21. visual association area
    the cortical area surrounding the primary visual cortex and responsible for interpreting the significance of visual stimuli
  22. primary sensory cortex
    cortical area in the postcentral gyrus responsible for receiving somesthetic sensations from the body
  23. sensory association area
    the cortical areas just posterior the the sensory strip that assist in interpreting sensations
  24. association fibers
    central nerve fibers that interconnect areas within a hemisphere
  25. arcuate fasciulus
    primary association fiber tract within each hemisphere; connects Wernicke's area in the temperal lobe with the Broca's area in the frontal lobe of the language dominant hemisphere
  26. commissural fibers
    neural fibers that transmit information between the cerebral hemispheres
  27. corpus callosum
    major bundle of commissural fibers forming an arched body beneath the longitudinal fissure and connecting the cerebral hemispheres
  28. projection fibers
    neural fibers that transmit motor and sensory fibers between the cortical areas and peripheral nerves
  29. pyramidal tract
    the tract of nerve fibers carrying motor impulses from the cortex to various levels of the spinal cord
  30. basal ganglia
    a group of large cell bodies located deep within the cerebral hemispheres whose interconnections regulate automatic background adjustments in movement
  31. caudate nucleus
    major deep brain cell body that is part of the basal ganglia
  32. lenticular nucleus
    a cell body in the basal ganglia
  33. extrapyramidal system
    hypothetical system of multiple cerebral interconnections involving the basal ganglia, cortical areas, and cerebellum, which integrate background adjustments and purposeful movements
  34. cerebellum
    lower, hindmost portion of the brain primarily responsible for coordination and balance
  35. proprioception
    the sense of body posistion and orientation
  36. midbrain
    uppermost portion of the brain stem
  37. colliculi
    four paired bodies on the brain stem important for regulating visual and auditory reflexes
  38. pons
    middle portion of the brain stem that connects the midbrain and medulla
  39. medulla oblongata
    lower portion of the brain stem whose fibers are continuous with the spinal cord
  40. spinal cord
    part of the CNS that extends below the brain stem
  41. foramen magnum
    the large opening in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes to lower areas of the body
  42. dorsal horns
    posterior areas of the spinal cord containing nuclei for relaying incoming sensory information up the spinal cord
  43. ventral horns
    anterior areas of the spinal cord containing nuclei for relaying outgoing motor impulses to the body
  44. crainial nerves
    twelve paired bundles of peripheral nerve bundles that exit the CNS at the level of the brain stem
  45. spinal nerves
    the peripheral nerves that exit the spinal cord
  46. afferent roots
    the peripheral nerve bundles carrying sensory information to the ventral horns of the spinal cord
  47. efferent roots
    nerve fiber bundles carrying motor impulses away from the spinal cord
  48. autonomic nerves
    a portion of the nervous system responsible for regulating involuntary life support systems
  49. sympathetic division
    the division of the autonomic nervous system that stimulates the body's "fight or flight" responses
  50. parasympathetic division
    division of the autonomic nervous system that quiets and normalizes bodily functions
  51. speech mechanism
    anatomical structures for the production of speech sounds
  52. respiration
    the physiologic process of ventilating the body to inhale fresh air and exhale used air
  53. inspiratory cycle
    the respiratory phase in which air is inhaled into the lungs
  54. expiratory cycle
    the phase of respiration in which air is exhaled from the lungs
  55. larynx
    cartilaginous and muscular framework that supports and regulates the vocal folds for phonation
  56. thyroarytenoid muscle (also vocalis)
    the paired muscles that contribute the bulk of vocal folds
  57. glottis
    the source of laryngeal sound production, including the true vocal folds and the space between them
  58. subglottic pressure
    the air pressure that occurs below the vocal folds
  59. pharynx
    tubular cavity extending from the larynx to the oral and nasal cavities
  60. nasality
    resonation of the vocal tone through the nasal cavities
  61. hypernasality
    excess resonance in the nasal cavities during production of nonnasal speech sounds
  62. auricle (also pinna)
    the outermost, visible, cartilaginous portion of the ear
  63. ear canal (also external auditory meatus)
    funnel-shaped tube that conducts sound waves from the opening in the pinna to the tympanic membrane
  64. tympanic membrane (eardrum)
    the membrane that divides the outer and middle ear and receives sound waves from the environment
  65. ossicles
    the three tiny bones of the middle ear that transmit energy from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea
  66. malleus
    the largest, most outermost bone in the ossicular chain of the middle ear and attached to the tympanic membrane
  67. incus
    the middle bone in the ossicular chain in the middle ear
  68. stapes
    the smallest and innermost ossicle in the middle ear; its contact with the oval window transmits movements to the cochlea
  69. semicircular canals
    three fluid-filled bony loops in the inner ear that contain fluid and contribute to maintaining balance
  70. cochlea
    the portion of the inner ear that contains the sensory end organ for hearing, the organ of Corti
  71. oval window
    the resting place for the footplate of the stapes where movement of the ossicular chain are transmitted through the cochlea
  72. basilar membrane
    a membrane within the inner ear that supports the sensory end organ for hearing, the organ of Corti, along the length of the cochlea
  73. organ of Corti
    the sense organ for hearing contained in the cochlea of the inner ear
  74. acoustic nerve (cranial nerve VIII)
    8th cranial nerve important for transmitting sound and balance sensation from inner ear to the brain
  75. embryonic period
    the period from conception through the 8th week following conception
  76. zygote
    single cell formed at conception containing the generic codes of both the father and mother
  77. mitotic division
    cell division that follows conception
  78. morula
    cluster of cells formed by the 4th or 5th day following conception
  79. blastocyst
    fluid-filled sphere containing embryonic cells, formed by the end of the first week following conception
  80. trophoblast
    outermost cells in the blastocyst that attach to the embryo to the uterine wall and serve as the pathway for nutrients
  81. embryoblast
    the blastocyct's inner cell mass that will develop into the embryo
  82. embryo
    the fertilized egg during the first 8 weeks of develpment
  83. placental barrier
    membranous structure that allows nourishment and oxygen to pass between the mother and the embryo or fetus
  84. embryonic disc
    cluster of cells in embryonic development at about 2 weeks following conception
  85. ectoderm
    outermost embryonic germ layer that contributes to various organs, including the nervous system and skin
  86. mesoderm
    middle embryonic germ layer that contributes to bones, cartilage, muscles and blood
  87. endoderm
    innermost embryonic germ layer that contributes to various organs, including the digestive tract and lungs
  88. gestation
    period of embryological and fetal development from conception to birth
  89. trimesters
    three equal intervals of approximately 3 months each in a typical pregnancy
  90. fetus
    the developing unborn child from the 10th week of gestation until birth
  91. primitive streak
    a feature of the embryonic disc that generates the mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm
  92. neural groove
    embryonic predecesssor to the neural tube
  93. neural folds
    the embryonic predecessor the the neural groove
  94. neural tube
    the embryonic predecessor to the spinal cord
  95. reflexes
    preprogrammed neuromuscular responses to stimuli
  96. specific activity reflex
    a reflex that affects an individual body part
  97. mass activity reflex
    a reflex in which the response is evidenced by the entire body