Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
2012-08-27 22:29:49

Psych Chapter 1
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  1. Psychology
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
  2. Psychology's Four Goals
    • -Description: What is happening?
    • -Explanation: Why is it happening? Theory: general explanation of a set of observations or facts.
    • -Prediction: Will it happen again?
    • -Control: How can it be changed?
  3. Structuralism
    • -Focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind.
    • -Died out in the early 1900s
  4. Wilhelm Wundt's
    • -Objective introspection: the process of objectively examining and measuring one's thoughts and mental activities
    • -Germany in 1879 established the first psychological laboratory
    • -Developed the technique of objective introspection: the process of objectively examining and measuring one's thoughts and mental activities.
  5. Edward Titchener
    • -Founded Structuralism
    • -Wundt's student; brought structualism to America
  6. Margaret Washburn
    -Titchener's student; first woman to earn a Ph. D in psychology
  7. Functionalism
    -How the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play
  8. William James
    -Proposed Functionalism
  9. Gestalt
    • - Max Wertheimer
    • -field focusing not only on perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving.
  10. Psychoanalysis
    • -Sigmund Freud
    • -Unconscious mind
    • -Sex Drive
  11. Behaviorism
    • -John B. Watson
    • -The science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
  12. Ivan Pavlov
    -Demonstrated that a reflex could be conditioned (Learned)
  13. Mary Cover Jones
    -Early Pioneer in behavior therapy
  14. Psychodynamic perspective
    • -Modern version of psychoanalysis
    • -More focused on the developement of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than sexual motivation
  15. B. F. Skinner 
    • -Behavioral Perspective
    • -introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism
  16. Humanistic Perspective
    • -Abraham Maslow/ Carl Rogers
    • -Free will
    • -Self-actualization
  17. Cognitive Perspective
    -Focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
  18. Sociocultural Perspective
    -Focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
  19. Biopsychological Perspective
    -attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occuring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system
  20. Evolutionary Perspective
    • -Focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share 
    • -looks at the way the mind works and why it works as it does
    • -Behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value
  21. Difference between a Psychiatiris and a Psychologist
    • -Psychiatrist: Ph. D and can prescribe medication
    • -Psychologist: Can not prescribe medication 
  22. Scientific Method 
    -System of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced
  23. Steps in the Scientific Method
    • 1. Percieve the question
    • 2. Form a hypothesis: tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations.
    • 3. Test the hypothesis.
    • 4. Draw conclusions.
    • 5. Report your results so that others can try to replicate, or repeat the study or experiment to see whether the same results will be obtained in an effort to demonstrate reliability of results.
  24. Naturalistic Observation
    -Watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment
  25. Laboratory Observation
    -Watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting
  26. Case Study
    • -Study of one individual in great detail
    • Famous case study: Phineas Gage
  27. Surveys
    -Researchers will ask a series of questions about the topic under study
  28. Correlation
    • -A measure of the relationship between two variables
    • Correlation does not prove causation
  29. Experiment
    -A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see whether corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships.
  30. Independent Variable (IV)

    Dependent Variable (DV)
    -The variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter (Violent TV)

    -The variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment (Aggressive Play)
  31. Experimental Group
    -Subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable

    -experimental group: watch TV
  32. Control Group
    • -Subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment (controls for confounding variables).
    • -Control Group: No TV
  33. Random Assignment
    - The process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group

    -controls for confounding (extraneous, interfering) variables
  34. Placebo Effect
    -The phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
  35. Single-Blind Study
    Subjects do not know whether they are in the experimental or the control group (reduces placebo effect)
  36. Experimenter Effect
    - Tendency of the experimenter's expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
  37. Double-Blind Study
    - Neither the experimenter nor the subjects know which subjects are in the experimental or control group (reduces placebo effect and experimenter effect)