A&P 233 Exam 4 Reproduction
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What is the Scrotums Job?
Keep the sperm 3 to 5 Degrees cooler than the rest of the body.
spermatic cord includes?
The testicular a. v. n. lymph, ductus deferens, and cremaster m.
Sertoli cells or sustentacular cells in the seminiferous tubules provide sustenance and nourishment to the spermatogonia. They also by way of a feedback loop release what?
Release Inhibin Via negative feedback loop to turn off sperm production to the hypothalmus and anterior pituitary.
Interstitial Cells of Leydig in the testes produce what?
Testosterone and androgen hormones.
Testosterone in high concentration can do what?
- Turn off sperm production by way of negative feedback loop to hypothalmus and pituitary gland.
- May become infertile in high amounts!
GnRh (Gonadotropin releasing hormone)
- released from hypothalmus
- regulates release of pituitary hormones by pulsation.
LH or ICSH (Lutenizing hormone or interstitial cell stimulating hormone)
- causes testosterone to be secreted
- Pituitary gland
- pituitary hormone that causes ovulation of mature follicle, releasing the 2o oocyte
FSH (Follical stimulating hormone)
- causes spermatogenesis to start controls the rate of spermatogenesis.
- pituitary hormone that stimulates follicle formation surrounding the oocyte.
The testes move through what down into the scrotum
In the seminiferous tubule, germinal cells divide to become
Spermatogenesis cells take about how many days to be formed and mature?
Spermatids go where so that they can finish maturing by streamlining the cell, increasing mitochondria and forming enzymes.
After spermatids mature in the epididymis they turn into what and are stored there.
How long can sperm be held in the epididymis?
If a male has a high fever he cannot produce sperm and must wait how long?
Accessory Glands = Seminal vesicles, Prostate Gland, and Bulbourethral Glands produce:
- 1. Antibacterial mucous clears the urethra
- 2. Alkaline buffers activates the spermatozoa (do not like an acid environment)
- 3. Fructose that feeds the spermatozoa
- 4. Prostaglandin hormone that causes smooth muscle contractions in the male and female.
- Aids the sperm in reaching the ovum in the fallopian tube.
PSA – prostate specific antigen
a test to screen for prostate cancer
phosphodiesterase is a what and does what?
an enzyme that destroys cGMP and reduces erection
Ejaculation is and is controlled by what?
Sympathetic control – spinal reflex – mechanical reflex all muscular movements cause positive feedback until orgasm occurs.
Immature cells – Spermatogonia
are the germinal cells that divide by mitosis and meiosis.
Female Reproductive Tract:
Produces ova and prepares uterus for development of embryo
There are three uterine layers...
The endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium.
- uterine mucosal lining thickens and develops glands and capillaries to ensure the nourishment of the embryo every month.
- If not fertilized then the endometrial lining sloughs away causing mensus
Left and right fallopian tubes or oviducts hold what?
The tube transports the ovum and is the site of fertilization
The ovaries are attached to the uterus by?
The ovarian ligament and to the body by the suspensory ligament.
The ovaries are the site of follicle & ovum development as well as what?
estrogen & progesterone production.
Follicular phase of Ovarian Cycle
- ovary’s follicular cells make estrogen and progesterone.
- one growing follicle develops around an ovum in the ovary (1-14 days)
Luteal phase of Ovarian Cycle
- ovary’s corpus luteum also makes estrogen and progesterone.
- the remnant of the follicle becomes the corpus luteum in the ovary (14 -28 days)
Meiosis II is not completed unless...?
Ovulation occurs and what is released?
the secondary oocyte is released from ovary into the peritoneal cavity at day 14 and goes to the infundibulum to enter the fallopian tube.
CL (yellow body) remaining granulosa cells in the ovary make estrogen andprogesterone to prepare the uterus for pregnancy if fertilization occurs.
CA (white body) The CL becomes the white fibrous scar tissue of CA, if no fertilization occurs. The CA stops producing hormones. So the levels of estrogen and progesterone drop, which results in FSH levels increasing.
Menses is always how many days after ovulation.
development of the ovum occurs inside the follicle, inside the ovary.
Negative feedback of what hormone prevents another follicle from developing.
Negative feedback of what hormone on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary prevents what from forming.
- Prevents another follicle from forming
Negative feedback on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary prevents another follicle from developing.
uterine endometrial glands and epithelium multiply stimulated by estrogen.
ovum released from ovary due to surge of LH.
endometrial glands secretions stimulated by estrogen and progesterone, preparing the uterus for implantation by the fertilized ovum and providing nutrients for zygote to useprior to implantation into the uterus. If no fertilization, return to 1.
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