A&P 233 Exam 4 Genes/Repro

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A&P 233 Exam 4 Genes/Repro
2012-08-30 02:42:06
233 Exam Genes Repro

A&P 233 Exam 4 Genes/Repro
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  1. Menses
    Uterine endometrium sloughs and ovary’s follicle begins to grow due to FSH release.
  2. Follicular phase
    The ovary’s follicle continues to grow and release estrogen.
  3. Proliferative phase
    estrogen causes proliferation of uterine endometrium and LH release
  4. Ovulation
    LH causes ovum to be released in Meiosis 1, 2o oocyte and it enters the fallopian tube
  5. Luteal phase
    ovary’s corpus luteum releases progesterone now (and estrogen)
  6. Secretory phase
    progesterone causes uterine endometrial glands to secret nutrients and preventsuterine contractions.
  7. Prior to ovulation, estrogen has what type of feedback effect on what, also causing the release of?
    Positive Feedback on hypothalamus and anterior pitiuitary which releases LH
  8. After the LH surge and ovulation, the effect on the hypothalamus is what type of feedback effect, decreasing the amount of what released by the anterior pituitary, preventing what?
    Negative Feedback to decrease FSH and LH preventing ovulation
  9. Progesterone release is associated with
    decreased uterine contractions, which supports implantation.
  10. What decreases uterine contractions?
  11. Fertilization:
    • a sperm penetrates the secondary oocyte, meiosis continues through meiosis II
    • occurs in uterine tube within 24 hours of ovulation (sperm can be viable only for 48 - 72 hours in female tract)
  12. Capacitation
    ‘arming’ of the acrosomal enzymes in the head of the sperm.
  13. The Ovum is surrounded by what? Which is protected by what?
    • halo of cells called corona radiata
    • thick jelly-like layer called the zona pellucida
    • Sperm must 'Cut' through corona radiata and zona pellucida to enter oocyte
  14. 1 spermatozoa + 1 ovum = ???
  15. diploid cell
    46 Chromosomes
  16. If no fertilization occurs what hormones decline? The CL becomes what?
    • Progesterone and estrogen decline.
    • The CL becomes corpus albicans
  17. Ovarian cysts
    is a general term for an enlarged area on the ovary. It maybe a non-rupturedfollicle, an enlarged corpus luteum, or other type of ovarian mass.
  18. Endometriosis
    is a condition where “inner uterine tissue” is outside of the uterus, typically inthe peritoneal cavity.
  19. Fibroids – aka Leiomyomas
    a mass of the uterine muscle that is benign.
  20. 1st week - day 1 – 7
    • Zygote moves from uterine tube to uterus
    • Progesterone increases blood vessels and endometrium glands, prevents contractions.
    • Progesterone can be used to stop labor contractions.
  21. Zygote cell division is called
    cleavage, number of cells increase by mitosis, in oviduct
  22. Morula
    solid ball of cells, mulberry
  23. Blastocyst
    hollow ball of cells –cells are smaller, overall size is same as morula
  24. outer layer – trophoblast –nourishing layer, hCG day 6 fluid filled – blastocoele – yolk sac – blood cell formationinner cell mass – embryo
    outer layer – trophoblast –nourishing layer, hCG day 6 fluid filled – blastocoele – yolk sac – blood cell formationinner cell mass – embryo
  25. hCG
    • is the hormone tested for by the at home pregnancy kits, May cause nausea.
    • hCG acts like LH maintains the corpus luteum so the corpus luteum continues to produce estrogen and progesterone.
  26. 2nd Week - day 7 to 14
    Implantation, endometrial gland secretions nourish blastocyst.
  27. Trophoblast
    secretes hCG, human chorionic gonadotropin, acts like LH maintains CL secretes enzymes and digests the endometrium to allow implantation develops the chorion with chorionic villi which is later placenta
  28. 3rd Week – day 15-21
    Inner cell mass differentiates into 3 germ layers and amniotic sac, oftencalled the embryonic disc. Gastrulation is the movement and folding of these germinal layers.
  29. 9th Week – now designated a fetus
    • Previously, the embryo is sexually indifferent.
    • Both female, Mullerian ducts and male, Wolffian ducts are present.
  30. Male/Female Fetus Weeks 9
    • Male fetus – Y chromosome with functioning SRY genes produces anti-Mullerian hormone,causing growth of Wolffian ducts in the 6th week which become the ductus deferens andepididymis. Then the fetus produces testosterone, causing the growth of external genitalia andaccessory ducts by the 9th week.
    • Female fetus – Mullerian ducts grow into the fallopian tubes. External genitalia form.No hormones are produced to accomplish this. Female occurs if there is no Y “SRY” genes.
  31. 12th Week placenta is fully functioning by end of 3rd mo. The placenta is an endocrine organ.
    Placenta takes over as a gland an fully supports pregnancy, CL, ovaries not neededPlacenta produces (estrogens) and progesterone - prevents uterine contractionsalso produces human placental lactogen – mammary developmentalso produces relaxin – softens pelvic symphysis & dilates the cervix also produces inhibin – inhibits FSH secretion, so no follicles develop
  32. Umbilicus contains fetal blood vessels
    • Umbilical arteries (2) carry waste out of the fetus leaving from the internal iliac a.
    • Umbilical vein carry Oxygen and nutrients into the fetus by the ductus venosus
  33. foramen ovale
    opening from the right atrium to the left atrium, closes after birthbypassing the fetal lungs since they are not functional.
  34. ductus arteriosus
    vessel from the pulmonary artery (trunk) to the aorta, closes after birth, priorto birth it is there to bypass the fetal lungs since they are not functional
  35. ductus venosus
    by passes the GIT, and liver, connecting the umbilical vein with oxygenated bloodfrom mother to the inferior vena cava which connects to the right atrium
  36. Summary of Gestation
    • 1 day - 2 Months – embryo development
    • 2 months – 9months – fetal development
    • Human Gestation – 280 days
  37. 1-3 trimester
    • 1st Trimester – first 3 months, placenta formed, embryo major organ systems formed, now a fetus critical time period- for normal development of structures
    • 2nd Trimester – next 3 months, organ systems developed, fetus takes on more human appearance
    • 3rd Trimester – last 3 months, rapid growth, organ systems functioning
  38. Teratogen
    an agent that causes birth defects, may have specific times when fetus is most vulnerable. (IE: drugs, alcohol, xrays)
  39. Mammary gland increase in size and activity due to?
    Human Placental Prolactin
  40. Relaxin
    loosens connective tissue within the pelvis and cervix
  41. Near term, progesterone levels ______, estrogens levels _______ allowing uterine muscle contractions
    • Progesterone Decreases
    • Estrogene High
  42. Stages of labor
    • 1. cervical dilation to 10 cm , 8 or more hours
    • 2. expulsion stage – delivery , 2 hours or less
    • 3. placental stage – placenta is expelled, 1 hour or less
  43. Milk
    • 1. Colostrum- first milk lasting 4 days, has antibodies, IgA, IgM and other proteins offers baby passive immunity to many diseases, must be given in first 3 days forinfant’s intestine to be able to absorb it. Enzymes and other proteins also present.
    • 2. Lactoferrin – binds to iron
    • 3. Bifidus factor – promotes ‘good’ GIT bacteria and normal digestion
    • 4. High fat, low protein, compared to cows milk, high fat needed for brain development.
  44. Zygote
    result of fertilization of ovum with sperm, normal diploid cell prior to cleavage.
  45. Dizygote
    2 ova and 2 sperm, that results in 2 individuals, fraternal twins.
  46. Monozygote
    1 ovum and 1 sperm that results in 2 individuals, identical twins
  47. A chromosome is made of
    DNA, a double helix.
  48. Gene
    • a specific location on DNA that codes for a specific characteristic by coding for a protein.
    • 3 base pairs code for an amino acid.
  49. Genotype
    is the specific combination of genes in an individual that determines traits
  50. Phenotype
    is the outward PHysical appearance or expression of the person’s genes
  51. Karotype
    refers to a photograph of metaphase chromosomes arranged in numerical order, 1-23pairs. Often done after amniocentesis to look for chromosomal abnormalities.
  52. All somatic cells contain how many pairs of chromosomes?
    23 pairs of chromosomes
  53. Autosomal Chromosomes
    are paired and numbered 1-22 and the sex chromosomes are the 23rd pair.
  54. Allele
    a form of a gene that codes for a specific characteristic or trait.
  55. Genetic mutation
    can be any change in the genetic code on a chromosome.
  56. sickle cell anemia
    • due to a change in codon for one amino acid of the hemoglobin protein.
    • Genetic Mutation
  57. Chromosomal mutation
    a change affecting the chromosome which affects many genes, may be seen when karotype is examined.
  58. Trisomy 21, or Down Syndrome
    • is due to non-disjunction of chromosomes in meiosis.
    • Chromosomal Mutation
  59. X-linked or Sex Linked inheritance problems are due to What?
    • the fact that males have only one copy of anygenes on the X chromosome.
    • If any of the genes on the X chromosome are defective, the male willexhibit the problem.