Sociology 358.1

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Sociology 358.1
2012-08-23 08:44:21
Criminal Justice

Introduction to Corrections
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  1. Work hard for nothing or adapt and commit crime.
    Anomic Trap
  2. When social norms are non-existent due to societal crisis such as poor economy.
  3. The theory that suggests there are too many stimuli in the real world that cause some people to commit crime.
    Arousal Theory
  4. "An action followed by a small but immediate gratification will tend to be repeated, even though it is followed by a large but delayed painful consequence".
    Hans Eysenck, Psychologist
  5. The concept that all behavior is in response to stimuli.  Behavior is shaped by the presense or absense of various reinforcers to stimulate behavior and punishers that extinguish behavior.  What is this explanation of behavior called?
    Behavior Modification
  6. Theory of Genetic Misfits
    Biological Determinism, Lombroso via Darwin
  7. Government agencies, facilities and techniques to deal with the accused or convicted.
  8. Study of Crime and Criminals
  9. Thesis that suggests that crime occurs across generations with persistent criminal and deviant values.
    Cultural Transmission Thesis
  10. Punishment discourages future crime
  11. Criminal behaviors and actions are learned through social interaction.
    Differential Association Theory, Edwin H. Sutherland
  12. Who advocated that offenders be exposed to prosocial definitions in a group context within correctional settings. 
    Donald Cressey
  13. Criminal behavior is cast in a positive or neutral light.  Robin Hood.
    Discriminitive Stimuli
  14. Mind influenced by parental training.
  15. Punish one, deter all.
    General deterrence
  16. The unconscious primitive urges of the mind.
  17. When the offender models the behavior seen in others in order to learn.
  18. Penal philosophy that emphasizes separation of offenders to reduce the opportunity for crime.
  19. Penal philosophy that emphasizes punishment and getting the rotten apple out of society.
  20. Lex Talionis
    Law of Retaliation, eye for eye
  21. Definitions are values and behaviors that are either prosocial or procriminal.  Criminals are exposed to more procriminal definitions as described in this Differential Association Theory. What is element missing from this theory according to Burgess and Akers?
    Operant Conditioning. Reward encourages "definitions"; punishers extinguish "definitions".  Behaviorism.
  22. Author of "The Criminal Man".
  23. Concept that punishment should be uncomfortable.
    Penal harm
  24. People who study punishment.
  25. Theorists that propose that crime is beyond the individuals control and the answer lies in a measurable aspect of the human condition.
  26. Theorists that believe defects of the mind cause crime.
    Psychological Determinists
  27. Individuals with no thought of conventional morality.
  28. Therapy that holds offenders accountable, paternalistic.  Behavior modification to get the offender to act like the therapist.
    Reality Therapy
  29. Penal philosophy that assists offenders to change.
  30. Penal philosophy that helps offenders transition to the community.
  31. Penal philosophy that repays the victim.
  32. Penal philosophy that attempts to balance accountability to victims, community protection and develop social, educational competencies.
  33. Eye for an Eye.  Code of Hammurabi.
  34. Individuals identified early in life as career criminals are sentenced for a long time.
    Selective Incapacitation
  35. Forces in a person's social and physical environment that connect a person to society and moral constituents.
    Social Bond
  36. Society provides the social glue that binds people together.  Without glue, hedonism reigns.
    Social Control Theory
  37. A French Sociologist who believed that crime derives from times when the social fabric is weakend by war, economy.  This weakend state is also known as Anomie.
    Emile Durkheim (1897) Social Control Theorist
  38. When a geographic area experiences a disturbed, distressed or incomplete social connectedness, i.e., goverment largely ignores schools and parks.  High mobility in the area.
    Social Disorganization (Social Ecologists)  Chicago 1920-30
  39. Early Social Ecologist known for Differential Association Theory
    Edwin H. Sutherland
  40. Four dimensions of definitions that have impact on prosocial or procriminal interactions
    • Priority-parents
    • Frequency
    • Duration
    • Intensity-strong emotional tie
  41. Learning occurs through two mechanisms:  Imitation and Differential Reinforcement
    Social Learning Theory
  42. People retain and repeat rewarded behavior and extinguish behavior that is punished.
    Differential Reinforcement
  43. Punishment dissuades the offender from repeating the same offense or committing a new one.
    Specific Deterrence
  44. Crime emerges from deviant subcultures. Rejecting society and its values, people form subcultures by bonding together to reduce the impact of society's rejection of them.
    Subcultural Hypothesis
  45. The mind that is concerned with moral values.
  46. Residential programs in which offenders work together to change the attitudes and behavior of all group members.
    Therapeutic Communities