Common Toxins 2

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kris10leejmu
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167128
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Common Toxins 2
Updated:
2012-08-23 22:52:20
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Clinical Practice ll
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Clinical Practice ll
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  1. Where do animals get lead poisoning from?
    • older paint (pre-1977)
    • toys
    • drapery weights
    • sinkers
    • bullets
  2. How can lead be poisonous?
    • fumes can be inhaled from heating lead
    • eating lead
  3. Is lead organic or inorganic?
    inorganic
  4. What is the mechanism of action for lead?
    • lead interferes with hemoglobin synthesis and RBC maturation
    • RBCs become fragile, short-lived and carry less oxygen
    • CNS signs due to ischemia or cerebral edema and neuron damage
    • lead causes peripheral nerve demyelination - slower nerve conduction velocities
  5. What are the clinical signs for lead toxicity?
    • neurological signs
    • ocular signs
    • gastrointestinal signs
    • lab test results
  6. What are the different types of neurological signs with lead toxicity?
    • seizures
    • dementia/hysteria
    • head pressing
    • jaw champing
    • vocalizing
    • running aimlessly
    • biting at everything
    • circling
    • compulsive pacing
  7. What are some ocular signs with lead toxicity?
    • blindness
    • mydriasis
    • iridocyclitis
    • swelling of optic disc
  8. What are some gastrointestinal signs with lead toxicity?
    • anorexia
    • pica
    • vomiting
    • constipation often followed by diarrhea
    • abdominal pain
  9. What kind of supportive treatment can we do for lead toxicity?
    • airway
    • collect lab sample
    • IV catheter
    • fluids
    • control seizures
    • treat cerebral edema - furosemide, mannitol
  10. What kind of decontamination treatment can we do for lead toxicity?
    • remove lead foreign bodies in GI tract or joints
    • cathartic - promotes GI evacuation
  11. What kind of drugs and antidotes can we use for treating lead toxicity?
    • chelation therapy
    • thiamine
    • broad-spectrum antibiotics
  12. What are the different types of chelation therapy?
    • succimer DMSA
    • dimercaprol
    • Ca EDTA
    • penicillamine
  13. What is the prognosis for lead poisoning?
    good if diagnosed and treated early
  14. What do both onions and garlic contain that can cause toxicity?
    disulfides
  15. How does disulfide in onions and garlic cause toxicity?
    disulfides cause oxidative damage to hemoglobin which results in methemoglobin formation and Heinz body anemia
  16. What are the clinical signs for onion and garlic toxicity?
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • signs secondary to anemia
    • signs secondary to intravascular hemolysis
    • microscope signs
  17. What are the signs secondary to anemia with onion and garlic toxicity?
    • pale mucous membranes
    • tachycardia
    • tachypnea
    • lethargy
    • weakness
  18. What are the signs secondary to intravascular hemolysis with onion and garlic toxicity?
    • methemoglobinemia
    • hematuria
    • hemoglobinuria
  19. What do we see under a microscope when there is onion and garlic toxicity?
    • Heinz bodies
    • leptocytes
    • poikilocytes
  20. What can of supportive treatment can we do for onion and garlic toxicity?
    • airway
    • oxygen
    • collect lab samples
    • IV catheter
    • fluids
    • blood transfusion
    • Oxyglobin
  21. What kinds of decontamination treatments can we do with onion and garlic toxicity?
    • emesis
    • activated charcoal
  22. What kind of drugs and antidotes can help with onion and garlic toxicity?
    acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)
  23. Are cats more sensitive to organophosphates and carbamates than dogs?
    yes
  24. How do organophosphates cause toxicity in the body?
    it inhibits acetylcholinesterase which allos acetylcholine to remain and constantly stimulate nerves
  25. What are the clinical signs for organophosphate toxicity?
    • muscarinic signs
    • nicotinic signs
    • generalized CNS signs
    • diagnosis
  26. What are some muscarinic signs associated with organophosphate toxicity?
    • SLUDDE - salivation, lacrimation, urination, dyspnea, diarrhea, emesis
    • miosis
    • bradycardia
  27. What are some nicotinic signs associated with organophosphate toxicity?
    • muscle twitching
    • tremors
    • muscle weakness
    • ataxia
    • paralysis
  28. What are some generalized CNS signs associated with organophosphate toxicity?
    • seizures
    • ataxia
    • anxiety
    • respiratory depression or failure
    • death
  29. How do we diagnose organophosphate toxicity?
    • history of exposure
    • blood cholinesterase depression
  30. What kind of supportive treatments can we do with an animal who has organophosphate toxicity?
    • airway
    • oxygen
    • collect lab samples
    • IV catheter
    • fluids
    • control seizures
    • treat hyperthermia
  31. What are some decontamination treatments we can do for an animal with organophosphate toxicity?
    • emesis if within 1 hour and patient is asymptomatic
    • gastric lavage
    • activated charcoal
    • cathartic
    • may need to wash the patient with soap and water
  32. What are some drugs and antidotes that can treat organophosphate toxicity?
    • atropine for muscarinic signs
    • diazepam or Benadryl for nicotinic signs
    • pralidoxime
  33. What are some ways animals can get Vitamin K rodenticide poisoning?
    • warfarin
    • coumarin
    • other rodenticides
  34. Which types of rodenticides cause more severe vitamin K rodenticide toxicity, older or newer?
    the newer rodenticides
  35. What are the different clinical signs associated with vitamin K rodenticide toxicity?
    • anorexia
    • coughing
    • depression
    • weakness
    • pallor
    • internal or external hemorrhage
    • abnormal coagulation test results
  36. What kind of supportive treatment can we use for vitamin K rodenticide toxicity?
    • airway
    • oxygen
    • collect lab samples
    • IV catheter
    • whole blood
    • plasma
    • Oxyglobin
    • fluids
  37. What are some decontamination treatments for vitamin K rodenticide toxicity?
    • emesis only within 1 hour of ingestion and with no clincial signs
    • gastric lavage
    • activated charcoal
    • cathartic
  38. What is the antidote for vitamin K rodenticide toxicity?
    vitamin K
  39. Where can animals get xylitol poisoning?
    • sugar-free gum
    • candy
    • baked goods
    • toothpaste
    • granulated form for baking
  40. How does xylitol cause toxicity in animals?
    • strongly promotes insulin release causing hypoglycemia
    • can also cause liver failure, bleeding disorders, and death
  41. What are some clinical signs for xylitol toxicity?
    • hypoglycemia
    • lethargy
    • weakness
    • ataxia
    • seizures
    • coma
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • collapse
  42. _____ pieces of chewing gum can cause hypoglycemia in a 20 pound dog.
    1 or 2
  43. What is the prognosis for xylitol toxicity?
    • uncomplicated hypoglycemia is treatable
    • if there is liver failure and bleeding disorders then the prognosis is poor
  44. What is the decontamination treatment for xylitol toxicity?
    emetics and gastric lavage if immediately after ingestion
  45. What kind of supportive treatment can we offer an animal with xylitol toxicity?
    • for hypoglycemia:  IV fluids, IV dextrose, monitor blood glucose
    • monitor liver function
  46. How can zinc cause toxicity?
    once in the stomach, the acid pH permits zinc to reach out and be absorbed into the body
  47. What ways can animals get zinc toxicity?
    • US pennies minted after 1982
    • zinc oxide ointment
    • galvanized objects
  48. What are the clinical signs for zinc toxicity?
    • small amounts or short-term exposure:  anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, depression
    • large amounts or long-term exposure:  severe intravascular hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria, hematuria, jaundice, weakness, death
  49. What are some supportive treatments we can offer an animal with zinc toxicity?
    • airway
    • oxygen
    • collect lab samples
    • IV catheter
    • whole blood
    • Oxyglobin
    • fluids
  50. What are some decontamination treatments for zinc toxicity?
    surgery to remove foreign body
  51. What are some drugs and antidotes for zinc toxicity?
    • chelation therapy
    • cimetidine or ranitidine to decrease stomach acidity

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