DEP- Chapter 1

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Rburk022
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167141
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DEP- Chapter 1
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2012-09-09 18:14:16
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Intro Child Psychology
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Intro to Child Psychology
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  1. A field devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence. 
    Child Psychology
  2. Can help parents and teachers meet challenges of rearing and educating children.
    Why study child development?

    Raising Children
  3. Permits informed decisions about social-policy questions that affect children.
    Why study Child development?

    Choosing Social Policies
  4. Provides insights into some of the most intriguing questions regarding human nature.
    • Why study child development?
    • Understanding human nature
  5. emphasized self-control & discipline.

    Children are born with innate knowledge (“nature”)
    Plato
  6. concerned with fitting child rearing to needs of individual child

    Knowledge comes from experience (“nurture”)
    Aristotle
  7. Saw child as a tabula rasa (blank slate)

    Advocated for first instilling discipline, then
    gradually increasing the child’s freedom.

    Power of environment to shape the child (“nurture”)

    Child can change at later ages due to
    experiences.
    John Locke
  8. argued that parents and society should give the child maximum freedom from the beginning.
    Jean-Jaques Rousseau
  9. development happened in a series of discontinuous, age-related changes.
    Idea of stage
  10. a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth (“nature”)
    Concept of maturation
  11. Which theory states: parent’s management of child’s urges and
    drives affect later development
    • Psychosexual theory
    • (Freud)
  12. Which theory states: Children’s behavior arises from rewards and punishments (“nurture”) that follow particular behaviors.
    Behaviorism (Watson)
  13. refers to our biological endowment, esp. the genes we receive from our parents 
    Nature
  14. refers to our wide range of environments, both physical and social, including the womb during prenatal development
    Nurture
  15. Which theme: Children contribute to their own development
    early in life, and their contributions increase as they grow older.
    The active child
  16. Age-related changes occur gradually

    growth in small increments
    Continuous development
  17. Age-related changes include occasional large shifts so that children of different ages seem qualitatively different.
    discontinuous devvelopment
  18. Propose that development occurs in a progression of age-related, qualitative shifts.
    Stage theories
  19. one mechanism involves the role of brain activity, genes and learning experiences in the development of _______
    attention
    effortful
  20. Refers to the physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances that make up any child’s development
    Sociocultural context
  21. a procedure in which questions are adjusted in accord with the answers the interviewee provides
    clinical interview
  22. A research procedure in which all participants are asked to answer the same questions
    Structured interview
  23. Used when the primary goal of research is to describe how children behave in their usual environments
    ·       
    Researcher goes to child’s natural enviro and
    records behavior.
    Naturalistic observation
  24. Involves presenting an identical situation to children and recording each child’s behavior
    Structured observation
  25. Which method is best for capturing a rare behavior in children?
    Structured observation
  26. which methods measure autonomic nervous system activity?
    psycho-physiological methods

    EEG , ERPs , PET , fMRi
  27. ____ designs determine how variables are related to
    one another
    correlational
  28. as one variable increases, so does the other
    (both in same direction )
    Positive direction
  29. as one variable increases, the other decreases
    (Move in opposite directions)
    Negative direction
  30. refers to the ability of the researcher to determine the specific experiences that children have during the experiment
    experimental control
  31. what is maniupulated during experiment
    independent variable
  32. a behavior that is hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable.
    dependent variable
  33. a procedure in which each child has an equal chance of being assigned to any group within an experiment
    random assignment
  34. the degree to which independent measurements of a given behavior are consistent.
    reliability
  35. the amount of agreement in the observations of different raters who witness the same behavior
    interrater reliability
  36. attained when measures of performance are similar on two or more occasions.
    test-retest reliability
  37. refers to the degree to which a test or experiment measures what it Is intended to measure
    Validity
  38. is the degree to which effects observed within experiments can be attributed to the variables that the researcher intentionally manipulated.
    internal validity
  39. is the degree to which results can be generalized beyond the particulars of the research
    External validity
  40. used when the same children are studies twice or more over a substantial period of time.
    Longitudinal design
  41. children of different ages are compared on a given behavior or characteristic over a short period of time.
    Cross-sectional designs
  42. used to provide an in-depth depiction of processes that produce change.
    microgenetic designs
  43. Who proposed a stage theory of cognitive development
    Piaget
  44. a pine tree growing would be an example of which type of development?
    Continuous development
  45. a butterfly's growth would be classified as which type of development?
    Discontinuous
  46. 1. genetic differences
    2. differences in treatment by parents and others
    3. differences in reactions to similar experiences
    4. different choices of environment

    are all factors that contribute to  indvidual differences among children according to who?
    Sandra Scarr
  47. Theorists who believed nurture shaped development:
    • Aristotle
    • Locke
    • Watson
  48. Theorists who believed nature shaped development:
    • Plato
    • Rousseau
  49. It is not possible to tell from a correlation which variable is the cause and which is the effect.
    Direction of causation
  50. A correlation between two variables may arise from both being influences by some third variable.
    third-variable problem
  51.  the hypotheses should predict straightforward what should happen on these measures
    Relevance to hypotheses
  52. difficult to keep all participants in study
     
    Repeatedly testing children can threaten external validity of study
    disadvantages of longitudinal designs
  53. uninformative about stability of individual differences over time
          
    Uninformative about similarities and differences in individual children’s patterns of change
    disadvantages of cross sectional designs
  54. difficult to carry out

    Does not provide information about typical patterns of change over long periods

    Does not reveal individual change patterns over long periods.
    Disadvantages of microgenetic designs

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