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A field devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence.
Can help parents and teachers meet challenges of rearing and educating children.
Why study child development?
Permits informed decisions about social-policy questions that affect children.
Why study Child development?
Choosing Social Policies
Provides insights into some of the most intriguing questions regarding human nature.
- Why study child development?
- Understanding human nature
emphasized self-control & discipline.
Children are born with innate knowledge (“nature”)
concerned with fitting child rearing to needs of individual child
Knowledge comes from experience (“nurture”)
Saw child as a tabula rasa (blank slate)
Advocated for first instilling discipline, then
gradually increasing the child’s freedom.
Power of environment to shape the child (“nurture”)
Child can change at later ages due to
argued that parents and society should give the child maximum freedom from the beginning.
development happened in a series of discontinuous, age-related changes.
Idea of stage
a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth (“nature”)
Concept of maturation
Which theory states: parent’s management of child’s urges and
drives affect later development
- Psychosexual theory
Which theory states: Children’s behavior arises from rewards and punishments (“nurture”) that follow particular behaviors.
refers to our biological endowment, esp. the genes we receive from our parents
refers to our wide range of environments, both physical and social, including the womb during prenatal development
Which theme: Children contribute to their own development
early in life, and their contributions increase as they grow older.
The active child
Age-related changes occur gradually
growth in small increments
Age-related changes include occasional large shifts so that children of different ages seem qualitatively different.
Propose that development occurs in a progression of age-related, qualitative shifts.
one mechanism involves the role of brain activity, genes and learning experiences in the development of _______
Refers to the physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances that make up any child’s development
a procedure in which questions are adjusted in accord with the answers the interviewee provides
A research procedure in which all participants are asked to answer the same questions
Used when the primary goal of research is to describe how children behave in their usual environments
Researcher goes to child’s natural enviro and
Involves presenting an identical situation to children and recording each child’s behavior
Which method is best for capturing a rare behavior in children?
which methods measure autonomic nervous system activity?
EEG , ERPs , PET , fMRi
____ designs determine how variables are related to
as one variable increases, so does the other
(both in same direction )
as one variable increases, the other decreases
(Move in opposite directions)
refers to the ability of the researcher to determine the specific experiences that children have during the experiment
what is maniupulated during experiment
a behavior that is hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable.
a procedure in which each child has an equal chance of being assigned to any group within an experiment
the degree to which independent measurements of a given behavior are consistent.
the amount of agreement in the observations of different raters who witness the same behavior
attained when measures of performance are similar on two or more occasions.
refers to the degree to which a test or experiment measures what it Is intended to measure
is the degree to which effects observed within experiments can be attributed to the variables that the researcher intentionally manipulated.
is the degree to which results can be generalized beyond the particulars of the research
used when the same children are studies twice or more over a substantial period of time.
children of different ages are compared on a given behavior or characteristic over a short period of time.
used to provide an in-depth depiction of processes that produce change.
Who proposed a stage theory of cognitive development
a pine tree growing would be an example of which type of development?
a butterfly's growth would be classified as which type of development?
1. genetic differences
2. differences in treatment by parents and others
3. differences in reactions to similar experiences
4. different choices of environment
are all factors that contribute to indvidual differences among children according to who?
Theorists who believed nurture shaped development:
Theorists who believed nature shaped development:
It is not possible to tell from a correlation which variable is the cause and which is the effect.
Direction of causation
A correlation between two variables may arise from both being influences by some third variable.
the hypotheses should predict straightforward what should happen on these measures
Relevance to hypotheses
difficult to keep all participants in study
Repeatedly testing children can threaten external validity of study
disadvantages of longitudinal designs
uninformative about stability of individual differences over time
Uninformative about similarities and differences in individual children’s patterns of change
disadvantages of cross sectional designs
difficult to carry out
Does not provide information about typical patterns of change over long periods
Does not reveal individual change patterns over long periods.
Disadvantages of microgenetic designs