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FAR inspection requirements for altimeter and static system, as well as transponder.
Must be inspected within the preceding 24 calendar months
Attitude Indicator, Heading Indicator, and Turn Coordinator
Gyroscopic instruments operation is based on two fundamental concepts:
Rigidity in space and precession
Gyro is mounted on:
Which instruments are required for instrument flight in addition to the TOMATO FLAMES?
- G-enerator (alternator)
- R-adio (appropriate to ground equipment)
- A-ltimeter (sensitive)
- B-all (turn coordinator)
- A-ttitude indicator
- R-ate of turn indicator
- D-irectional Gyro (heading indicator)
- D-atabases (up to date)
1 Coordinated turns
2 Rolling out of steep 180 to the right
4 Rolling out from 180 skidding
- 1 Precesses toward inside of turn
- 2 slight climb and turn to the left
- 3 indicates a climb
- 4 shows turn opposide direction of skid
Standard Rate Turn
- 3 degrees per second
- 360 in two minutes
- 180 in one minute
- 90 in 30 seconds
part of the turn coordinator that contains the fluid and ball
1 Vacuum Driven Gyro's
2 Electrical Gyro
- 1 Attitude Indicator and Heading Indicator
- 2 Turn coordinator
Magnetic Compass Errors
Variation vs Deviation
- Variation is the difference between true north and magnetic north. East is least, West is best. Subtract easterly variation, add westerly variation.
- Deviation is caused by aircraft components.
- Occur when turning to or from a heading of north or south.
- North Lags, South Leads.
Northerly turning error
When rolling into a turn from a northerly heading, the compass swings in the opposite direction of the turn - then it lags and catches up to the turn.
Southernly turning error
Occurs when rolling into a turn from a southerly heading, compass turns in correct direction but leads actual heading.
Pitot Static Instruments
Airspeed Indicator, Altimeter, Vertical Speed Indicator
- Indicated Airspeed (indicated)
- Calibrated Airspeed (calibrated for instrument and position errors)
- Equivalent Airspeed (speeds above 200 KIAS)
- True Airspeed (calculate from CAS with pressure altitude and temperature)
- Mach - ratio of aircrafts true airspeed to the speed of sound.
How does the altimeter work?
Aneroid wafers - sealed - expand and contract as the atmospheric pressure from static source changes.
4 Standard datum
- 1 Indicated on the altimeter
- 2 indicated corrected for instrument error
- 3 displayed when set to 29.92
- 4 29.92 (sea level theoretically)
- 5 pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard temperature
- 6 height above sea level
- 7 Actual height above the ground
How does a VSI work?
Diaphragm expands or contracts during changes in static pressure and the calibrated leak allows the pressure change to equalize
Pitot Blockage - Ram air clogged, drain open
airspeed indicator will drop to zero
Pitot Blockage - Ram air and drain hole clogged
airspeed indicator acts as altimeter
Airspeed will continue to work but will be incorrect. Higher than where it became clogged, it will indicate slower, lower than where it became clogged, it will indicated faster.
The altimeter will freeze in place. The VSI freezes at zero
What does AHRS stand for?
Attitude and Heading Reference System
What is AHRS?
GPS and attitude computer - uses micro electro-mechanical sensors (MEMS) gyros and accelerometers or ring laser gyros to judge attitude.
Air Data Computer
Pressure inputs along with OAT are recieved by the air data computer which then displays them on the PFD.
Senses magnetic fields - functions as compass, but without the errors.