Human Growth & Development

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Human Growth & Development
2012-08-23 19:45:43
Chapter Human Growth Development 2314

Study cards of key terms and learning objectives
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  1. Human Development
    the scientific study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotion and personality
  2. Original Sin
    • 1. attributed to 4th century Augustine of Hippo
    • 2. all humans are born with selfish nature
    • 3. developmental outcomes, both good and bad, are the result of each individuals struggle to overcome an inborn tendancy to act immorally when doing so somehow benifits the self
  3. empiricism
    • 1. 17th century John Locke
    • 2. the mind of a child is a blank slate
    • 3. humans possess no innate tendencies and that all differences among humans are attributable to experience.
    • 4. adults can mold children into whatever they want them to be.
  4. innate goodness
    • 18th century Jean-Jacques Rousseu
    • claimed all human beings are naturally good and seek experiences that help them grow
    • believed children only need nurturing and protection to reach full potential
  5. Compare/Contrast
    innate goodness/ original sin/ blank slate
    • innate goodness and original sin approaches share the view that development involves a struggle between internal and external forces
    • blank slate view sees the child as a passive recipient of environmental influences
  6. baby biographies
    detailed records of scientists own childrens early development
  7. G. Stanley Hall of Clark University
    one of the first to use questionaires in performing studies.
  8. Norms
    average ages at which developmental milestones are reached
  9. maturation
    • the gradual unfolding of a genetically programmed sequential pattern of change
    • development occurred regardless of practice, training, or effort
  10. norm-referenced tests
    standardized tests that compare an individial cchilds sccore to the average score of others her age
  11. lifespan perspective
    the current view of developmentalists that important changes occur throughout the entire human lifespan and that these changes must be interpreted in terms of the culture and context in which they occur; thus, interdisciplinary research is critical to understanding human development.
  12. plasticity
    individuals of all ages posses the capacity for positive change in response to environmental demands.
  13. cognitive domain
    changes in thinking, memory, problem solving, and other intellectual skills
  14. social domain
    change in variables that are associated with the relationship of an individual to others
  15. nature-nurture debate
    the debate about the relative contributions of biological processes and experiential factors to development
  16. quantitative change
    a change in amount
  17. qualitative change
    a change in kind or type
  18. normative age-graded changes
    changes that are common to every member of a species
  19. stages
    qualitatively distinct period of development
  20. social clock
    a set of age norms defining a sequence of life experiences that is considered normal in a given culture and that all individuals in that culture are expected to follow
  21. ageism
    a prejudicial view of older adults that characterizes them in negative ways
  22. nonnormative changes
    changes that result from unique, unshared events
  23. Normative history-graded changes
    changes that occur in most members of a chohort as a result of factors at work during a specific, well defined historical period
  24. critical period
    a specific period in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence (or absence) of some particular kind of experience
  25. sensitive period
    a span of months or years during which a child may be particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence.
  26. atypical development
    development that deviates from the tyupical developmental pathway in a direction harmful to the individual
  27. naturalistic observation
    the process of studying people in their normal environment
  28. case study
    an in depth examination of a single individual
  29. laboratory observation
    observbation of behavior under controlled condition
  30. survey
    data collection method in which participants respond to questions
  31. population
    the entire group that is of interest to a researcher
  32. sample
    subset of a group that is of interest to a researcher who participates in a study
  33. representative sample
    a sample that has the same characteristics as the population to which a studys findings apply
  34. correlation
    a relationship between two variables that can be expressed as a number ranging from -1.00 to +1.00
  35. experiment
    a study that tests a causal hypothesis
  36. experimental group
    the group in an experiment that receives the treatment the experimenter thinks will produce a particular effect.
  37. control group
    the group in an experiment that receives either no special treatment or a neutral treatment
  38. independant variable
    the presumed causal element in an experiment
  39. dependaent variable
    the characteristic or behavior that is expected to be affected by the independent variable
  40. cross sectional design
    a research design in which groups of people of different ages are compared
  41. longitudinal design
    a research design in which people in a single group are studied at different times in their lives
  42. sequential design
    a research design that combines cross sectional and longitudinal examinations of development
  43. cohort effects
    findings that are the result of historical factors to which one age group in a cross sectional study has been exposed
  44. ethnography
     a detailed description of a single culture or context
  45. research ethics
    the guidelines researchers follow to protect the rights of animals used in research and humans who participate in studies.
  46. what ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists
    the philosophical concepts of original sin, innate goodness, and the blank slate have influenced Western ideas about human development. Darwin studied child development to gain insignt into evolution. G. Stanley Hall published the first scientific study of children and introduced the concepts of norms
  47. what is lifespan perspective
    todays developmentalists recognize that change happens throughout life. The lifespan perspective includes the notions that plasticity exists throughout the lifespan, that information from a variety of disciplines is needed to understand development, and that development occurs in multiple contexts.
  48. what major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to orgainze their discussions of the human lifespan
    theorists and researchers group age related changes into three broad categories: the physical, cognitive, and social domains. they also refer to the major periods of development: prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood
  49. how do developmentalists view the two sides of the nature-nurture debate?
    historically, develoopmentalists have debated nature versus nurture, but now they believe that every developmental change is a product of both
  50. what is the continuity-discontinuity debate?
    the continuity-discontinuity debate centers on whether change is a matter of amount or degree (continuous, quantitative change) or a matter of type or kind (discontinuous, qualitative change). Some aspects of development, such as height, are continuous and change quantitatively, while others, such as reproductive capacity, are discontinuous and change qualitatively. developmental theorists who focus on qualitative changes usually propose explanations of psychological development that include stages
  51. how do the three kinds of age related change differ?
    normative age graded changes are those that are experienced by all human beings. Normative history graded changes are common to individuals who have similar cultural and historical experiences. Genetic factors and the timing of experiences are two important causes of nonnormative changes in development.
  52. how does consideration f the contexts in which change occurs improve scientists' understanding of human development?
    the contexts of development include both individual varieables and the settings in which development occurs (e.g. family, neighborhood, culture). Individual traits and contexts interact in complex ways to influence development.
  53. what are the goals of scientists who study human development
    developmental psychologists use scientific methods to describe, explain, predict, and influence age related changes and individual differences
  54. what descriptive methods are used by developmental scientists
    case studies and naturalistic observation provide a lot of important information, but it usually isnt generalizable to other individuals or groups. Correlational studies measure relationships between variables. They can be done quickly, and the information they yield is more generalizable than that from case studies or naturalistic observation
  55. what is the primary advantage of the experimental method
    to test causal hypotheses, it is necessary to use experimental designs in which participants are assigned randomly to experimental or control groups
  56. how do cross sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs differ
    in cross sectional studies, separate age groups are each tested once. In longitudinal designs, the same individuals are tested repeatedly over time. Sequential designs combine cross sectional and longitudinal comparisons
  57. why is cross cultural research important to the study of human development?
    cross cultural research helps developmentalists identify universal factors and cultural variables that affect development
  58. what are the ethical standards that developmental researchers must follow
    ethical principles governing psychological research include protection from harm, informed consent, confidentiality, knowledge of results, and protection from deception.