Diseases of Blood

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Diseases of Blood
2012-08-23 20:23:05
Diseases Blood

Ch 7 Diseases of Blood
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  1. What is Blood?
    • A mixture of fluids and cells that Transports oxygen (O2) and nutrients from lungs to body tissues (Proteins, Hormones)
    • Transports carbon dioxide (CO2) and waste from body tissues to lungs
  2. What are the celluar componets of blood?
    • Red blood cells (RBC) or erythrocytes
    • White Blood Cells (WBC) or Luekocytes
  3. What are Characteristics of Red Blood cells?
    • Carries Oxygen
    • Comprises approximately 50% of blood volume
    • Most abundant cell in the body
    • Biconcave in shape (doughnut-shaped)
    • contain the iron-rich O2 carry protein hemoglobin
  4. What is the Average life Span of RBCs and where are the produced?
    • 120 days
    • Red Bone Marrow, sternum, vertbrae, ribs, pelvis
  5. App how many RBC in the  body (Male and Female)
    • Males - 5 millon
    • Females 4.5 million
  6. What gives RBCs their red color?
    • Hemeglobin
    • Composed of heme (binds to irons) and globulin (protien)
  7. How are the old RBCs removed form the body?
    By the liver and the spleen
  8. What is the process of RBC formation
    • Erthropoiesis
    • Regulated by the kidney hormone erythroproietin
  9. White Blood Cells (WBCs) or Leukocytes
    • Involved in inflamation and immunity
    • [1] Neutrophils
    • [2] Eosinophils
    • [3] Basophils
    • [4] Lymphocytes
    • [5] Monocytes
    • [6] Platelets or clotting cells
  10. What are some systemic disorders that are diagnosed through blood test and blood disorders
    • Systemic Disorder - 
    • Dibetes - blood glucose levels
    • Atherosclerosis - Elevated cholesterol,  Elevated LDL Cholesterol, Decreased HDL cholesterol
    • blood Disorders
    • Anemia
    • Leukemia
  11. What are 3 diferential blood anaylsis
    • Qualitative
    • Quanitiative
    • Boone Marrow Smear
  12. Qualitative blood analysis
    Size and Shape
  13. Quanitative blood analysis
    • Total blood count (Rbs, wbs, platelets)
    • Ratio of specific cell types to total blood cells
    • hemoglobin
    • hematocrit
    • Serum chemistry
    • Enzymes
    • Hormones
  14. Bone Marro Smear
    • 1] Obtained by needle aspiration of bone
    • marrow
    • [a] Provides information on bone marrow function and qualitative characteristics of stem cells
    • {1} Used to diagnose
    • {a} Dyscrasia- a pathological condition of blood or cellular   elements of the blood)
    • <1> Malignant blood disorders
    • <2> Altered blood count disorders
  15. Potential Causes of Anemia
    • Medications      
    • Poor diet
    • Diseases             
    • Pregnancy
    • Heredity             
    • Bone marrow dysfunction
    • Kidney failure   
    • Immune system dysfunction
    • Blood loss           
    • Gastrointestinal surgery
  16. Symptoms of Anemia
    • Pallor
    • Fatique or weakness
    • Dyspnea
    • Palpitations
    • Juandice
  17. Types of anemia
    • Iron deficiency amemia
    • Anemia of Chronic Diseases
    • Anemia of Renal Disease
    • Megaloblastic Anemia
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency or pernicious anemia
    • Folic acid deficiency anemia
    • Hemolytic anemia
  18. Iron Deficiency Anemia
    • Leading cause of anemia worldwide
    • Decreased number of rbcs in the blood caused by low iron
    • levels
    • Iron balance in body tightly controlled
    • Iron balance designed to conserve iron for reutilization
    • Iron in body is replenished by dietary intake of iron-rich
    • foods
  19. Iron Loss from Body occurs by one of 2 stages
    • 1-Negative iron balance
    • {a} Demand for iron exceeds the body’s ability to absorb
    • dietary iron
    • {b} Causes include Blood loss, Pregnancy, Rapid growth
    • spurts in children or adolescents, Inadequate dietary iron intake due loss of small intestinal           mucosal cell integrity (unable to absorb dietary iron)
    • {2} Depletion of body’s iron stores
    • Cause includes :  rbcs lose shape appearing cigar- or pencil-shaped
  20. Treatments of Iron Deficiency Anemia
    • Oral Iron Supplements
    • Intravenous or intramuscular injectable supplements
  21. Animia of chronic disease
    • Occurs in chronic conditions such as 
    • Inflamation diseases uremia
    • Infectious diseases  - turberculosis
    • Automimmunie disease - crohns
    • Cancer
    •  (may be resolved if underlying disease is treated)
  22. Anemia of renal disease
    • Caused by chronic kidney dysfunction or renal failure
    • Correlates to severity of renal disease
    • Kidneys unable to produce sufficient levels of erythropoietin leading to reduced rbc survival
    • Serum iron levels used to differentiate this form from iron deficiency anemia
    • Serum iron levels tend to be normal in people with anemia of renal disease
  23. Megaloblastic anemia
    • [a] Results from impairment of DNA synthesis in rbc production
    • [b] rbcs are larger in megaloblastic anemia
    • [c] Megaloblastic erythroid cells have higher RNA/DNA han normal erythroid cells