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Three phases of surgical case mgtmt are:
- 1. Preoperative- all activities up until the incision is made.
- 2. Intraoperative- all activities from incision to the dressing applied to wound.
- 3. Postoperative- all activities that happen after dressing until the room is ready for the next patient. For the patient, it's from when the dressing is applied until they are discharged.
An aesthetic(esthetic) procedure is done because...
it improves the look of something, ex. facelift.
A bypass/shunt procedure is done because...
it reroutes the flow with a Lumen(tube like structure)
A diagnostic procedure is done to...
take a look to see what might be wrong, ex. breast biopsy.
An exploratory procedure is...
similiar to a diagnostice procedure but begins with an incision, ex. exploratory laparotomy.
An extraction is done to...
remove something, ex. tooth extraction.
An harvest/procurement procedure is when...
an organ is removed for transplant, ex. skin for a skin graft.
An obstruction procedure is done when...
something is blocking the flow(usually a lumened structure), ex. intestines or arteries.
A parturition procedure is ...
childbirth, ex. C-section.
A perforation procedure is when...
a hole is where it shouldn't be, ex. in the bowel.
A reconstruction/repair procedure is...
moving, adjusting, restoring something to its normal condition, ex. creation of a new breast.
A stabilization procedure is when...
something is placed to keep something else stable, ex. suture, metal anchors for a repair of a fracture.
A termination procedure is when...
something it stopped, ex. abortion.
A transplant procedure is when...
a non-functioning organ is replaced, ex. kidney transplant.
A procedure can be done to remove a tumor.
It can be benign or malignant.
Elective Surgery vs. Urgent Surgery vs. Emergent Surgery
- 1. Elective surgery is optional the pt does not need it to stay alive but choses to have the procedure done anyway.
- 2. Urgent Surgery is not optional the patient needs to get it done, their life is at risk, this will "bump" other procedures.
- 3. Emergent Surgery need to be ASAP, as soon as a room is available.
Surgical Specialty: Colon/rectal organs:
Rectum, sm. intestine, lg, intestine, stomach, esophagus, anus & parianal.
Surgical Specialty: Bariatric organs:
stomach & intestines, this specialty helps a person with extreme obesity lose weight.
Surgical Specialty: Gynecological organs:
ovary fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, breasts, perineum & bladder.
Surgical Specialty: Opthalmic organs:
Eye and surrounding tissue.
Surgical Specialty: Orthopedic organs:
bones, muscle, and tendons.
Surgical Specialty: Ear, Nose, Throat organs:
Ear, nose, throat and surrounding areas.
Surgical Specialty: Cardiovascular organs:
heart, veins, arteries.
Surgical Specialty: Thoracic organs:
organs that are located in the thoracis region; esophagus, trachea, pleura, mediastinum, chest wall, and diaphragm.
Surgical Specialty: Plastic and Rectonstructive organs:
restoration of body parts to look normal, or to look better.
Surgical Specialty: Podiatric:
foot and ankle
Surgical Specialty: Genitourinary(GU) organs:
kidneys, bladder, ureters, perineum, and male reproductive
Surgical Specialty: Neurosurgery:
nervous system; brain, spinal cord, & nerves
Surgical Specialty: Maxillofacial:
Mouth, jaw, and neck.
- -Establishes professional and national performance standards.
- -Provides accountability.
- -Recognition of the profession.
- -Establishes initial and conitinuing competence.
- -Protects and promotes the public health.
Licensed and Registration
- Most restrictive form of occupational regulation.
- If person is licensed, the state is representing that the individual has met established educational or training requirements.
- A formal process by which qualified individual are listed in a registry with the state regulator of professions.
- 4. Doesn't transfer state to state.
Certification (Certified Surgical Technologist)
- Certifying demonstrates that the surgical technologist values his or her profession, patient, and colleagues.
- Demonstrates knowledge of patient care techniques and commitment ot advancing in the profession through continuing education.
- Links candidacy for certification to graduation from accredited program.
- A formal recognition by a professional body(Association of Surgical Technologists), that recognizes an individual for testing and meeting the minimum standards.
- Usually does transfer state to state.
Nonsterile Team Members
- 1. Anesthesia provider
- 2. Circulator
- 3. Equipment Technician
- 4. Anesthesia Technician
Anesthesia provider (CRNA, MD, or DO)
Functions as the guardian of the patient. Anesthesia personnel maintain the overall well being of the patient during the surgical procedure.
A CRNA takes care of a patient's anesthesia needs before, during and after surgery or the delivery of a baby by:
- Performing a physical assessment.
- Participating in preop teaching.
- Preparing for anesthetic mgmt.
- Administering anesthesia to keep the patient pain free.
- Maintaining anesthesia intraoperatively.
- Overseeing recovery from anesthesia.
- Following the patient's postop course from recover room to patient care unit.
Circulator (RN sometimes a CST)
Responsible and accountable for all activities during a surgical procedure. The nurse is the primary patient advocate, the patient educator, and leader. Handles most nonsterile activites for the surgical field. Preps the skin before the incision. Is continuously knowledgeable and responsible for the status of the patient.
(biomedical technicians, readiology technicians, patient care technician, perfusionist, Central Supply technician.
Assists with anesthesia personnel in the preparation of the surgical room and anesthesia cart.
Sterile Team Members
- 1. Surgeon
- 2. Assistants
- 3. Scrub Person
Surgeon's duties (MD medical doctor, DO doctor of osteopathy, DDS, DMD doctor of Dentistry, DPM doctor of podiatry medicine)
The surgeon must have the knowledge, skill, and judgement required to successfully perform the intended surgical procedure and any deviations necessitated by unforeseen difficulties.
Assitants duties (SA, PA, ST, MD and RNFA)
First assistant should be capable of assuming responsibility for performing the procedure for the primary surgeon.
Scrub person's duties (CST, SST, LPN, RN)
The scrub person is responsbile for maintaining the integrity, safety, and efficiency of the sterile field throughout the surgical procedure by providing the required sterile instruments and supplies